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Old 07-28-2012
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Eye Important fundoscopic findings for your exam

Hello everyone,
here's some of the important findings on fundoscopic examinations, along with some text explanations.
please feel free to add any note or correct something.


kind regards


Normal fundus
Vessels emerge from nasal side of disc. Arteries are narrower than veins.

Pathological Optic Cupping

Note cup-to-disc ratio at least 0.8 (physiologic limit of 0.5).(glaucoma)



Optic Disk Edema(obliteration of the optic disc edges)

The optic disc is elevated and its surface is covered by cotton wool spots (damaged axons) and flame hemorrhages (damaged vessels). Four I's: increased intracranial pressure (papilledema), infarction, inflammation, infiltration (by cancer).
The first picture below was taken simply by holding smartphone in front of the Panoptic opthalmoscope!





Arterio-Venous (AV) Nicking
Chronic hypertension stiffens and thickens arteries. At AV crossing points (arrow) arteries indent and displace veins.


Cotton Wool Spots
Caused by microinfarcts. Exploded ganglion cell axons extrude their axoplasm into retina. Long DDx: hypertension, diabetes, HIV, severe anemia or thrombocytopenia, hypercoagulable states, connective tissue disorders, viruses, and others.


Emboli and Infarcts
Small fleck a ‘Hollenhorst’ plaque caused from platelet/fibrin/cholestorol embolus. Resulting in an infarct (gray area above and right of the plaque).



Roth Spot
Pale-centered hemorrhage. Caused by several conditions, not only bacterial endocarditis. (Image Credit)

retinitis pigmentosa
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Old 08-01-2012
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Default Uveal melanoma

Uveal melanoma: After skin, most common site for melanoma.Important fundoscopic findings for your exam-fig01.jpg
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Old 08-16-2012
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wow...great effort !
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Old 08-22-2012
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this is an awesomeee thread......and i really appreciate it a lottt....

i have a request.....can you please label the pictures like the first picture and few others.....

thanks a ton for this effort!!!
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Old 08-25-2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by aim_2012 View Post
this is an awesomeee thread......and i really appreciate it a lottt....

i have a request.....can you please label the pictures like the first picture and few others.....

thanks a ton for this effort!!!

I will update this thread after I finish my test, coming up in few days. :sorry:
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