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Old 05-02-2011
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Arrow Cytoplasmic Versus Mitochondrial Metabolic Processes

This is a common USMLE question. Here's some help

Exclusively in the Mitochondria: Mnemonic BEAT
  • Fatty acid oxidation (Beta-oxidation).
  • Oxidative phosphorylation and Electron transport chain.
  • Ketone body synthesis, AKA Acetyl Co A synthesis.
  • Krebs cycle, AKA TCA cycle.
Exclusively in the Cytoplasm:
  • Glycolysis.
  • Gluconeogenesis (basically the reverse of glycolysis though you need the malate shuttle to bring oxaloacetate from the mitochondria.
  • Hexose Mono Phosphate (HMP) shunt.
  • Cholestrol synthesis (as it needs the above two to supply Acetyl CoA and NADPH respectively).
  • Protein synthesis (RER).
  • Steroid synthesis (SER).
Both mitochondria and cytoplasm:
  • Heme synthesis.
  • Urea cycle (Where you have ornithine and citrulline jumping between the two sides).
  • Gluconeogenesis (this is listed here in FA, but see note above).
  • Fatty acid synthesis (this is not listed here in FA but citrate shuttle needed between the mitochondria and the cytoplasm).
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Biochemistry-, Cell-Biology-

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