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Old 07-25-2011
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Kidney Labeling the nephron parts!

Labeling the nephron parts!-kidney.jpg
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1.- At which nephron site does the amount of K+ in tubular fluid exceed the amount of filtered K+ in a person on a high K+ diet?

2.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid/plasma osmolarity lowest in a person who has been deprived of water?

3.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid inulin concentration highest during antidiuresis?

4.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid inulin concentration lowest?

5.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid glucose concentration highest?
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Old 07-25-2011
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1- d
2- d
3- e
4- a
5- a
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1)..e
2)d
3)e
4)a
5)a
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1.-e
2 b/a
3 c
4 a
5 a
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Old 07-25-2011
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Default Ans.

1.e
2.d
3.e
4.a
5.a
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1.e
2.d
3.c
4.a
5.a
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Old 07-25-2011
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1-e
2-c
3-c
4-d
5-a
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1.-e

2.- d

3.-e

4.-a

5.- a
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1. e
2. c
3. a
4. d
5. a
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1. e - this is where the K secretion takes place
2. d - lowest tubular fluid osmolarity is at the ascending limb as over here the obligated water is separated from its solutes and free water is left behind as the solutes are reabsorbed. so increasing volum, decreasing solutes, so less tub fluid osmolarity. plasma osmolarity would be lowest wherever there is more fluid reabs rather than solute which would be later in the collecting duct where ADH creates water channels...i think. not clear on this.
3. e - inluin is neither reabs nor secreted. here, during antidiuresis more water would be reabs, so increasing concentration
4. a - concentration would be lowest at a, as we move ahead, there is slight reabs of water from the descending limb of loop of henle which increases concentration. although there would be dilution at the ascending limb, dont think itl suffice.
5. a - just at or before the na/glucose pump starts working

great question bebix! looking forward to the answers and some explanations as well!thx!
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Old 07-26-2011
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1 e 2d 3c 4a 5a
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Star correct answer

1.- At which nephron site does the amount of K+ in tubular fluid exceed the amount of filtered K+ in a person on a high K+ diet?

E) K+ is secreted by the late distal tubule and collecting ducts. Because this secretion is affected by dietary K+, a person who is on a high-K+ diet can secrete more K+ into the urine than was originally filtered. At all os the other nephron sites, the amount of K+ in the tubular fluid is either equal to the amount filtered (A) or less than the amount filtered (because K+ is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle).

2.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid/plasma osmolarity lowest in a person who has been deprived of water?

D) A person who is deprived of water will have high circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The tubular fluid/plasma (TF/P) osmolarity is 1.0 throughout the proximal tubule, regardless of ADH status. In antidiuresis, TF/P osmolarity > 1.0 at site C because of equilibration of the tubular fluid with the large corticopapillary osmotic gradient. At site E, TF/P osmolarity > 1.0 because of water reabsorption out of the collecting ducts and equilibration with the corticopapillary gradient. At site D, the tubular fluid is diluted because NaCl is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb without water, making TF/P osmolarity < 1.0.

3.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid inulin concentration highest during antidiuresis?

E) Because inulin, once filtered, is neither reabsorbed nor secreted, its concentration in tubular fluid reflects the amount of water remaining in the tubule. In antidiuresis, water is reabsorbed throughout the nephron (except in the thick ascending limb and cortical diluting segment). Thus, inulin concentration in the tubular fluid progressively rises along the nephron as water is reabsorbed, and will be highest in the final urine.

4.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid inulin concentration lowest?

A) The tubular fluid inulin concentration depends on the amount of water present. As water reabsorption occurs along the nephron, the inulin concentration progressively increases. Thus, the tubular fluid inulin concentration is lowest in Bowman's space, prior to any water reabsorption.

5.- At which nephron site is the tubular fluid glucose concentration highest?

A) Glucose is extensively reabsorbed in the early proximal tubule by the Na+-glucose cotransporter. The glucose concentration in tubular fluid is highest in Bowman's space before any reabsorption has occurred.
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