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  #1  
Old 08-24-2011
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Default HIV with low CD4

A 35-year-old man who is HIV antibody–positive and has a CD4 count of 30 says "I can't remember the simplest things." You are concerned about dementia. An MRI indicates several widely scattered lesions in the brain. Over the next 4 months, he develops visual field defects, becomes paralyzed, and dies. Autopsy reveals that many neurons of the brain have lost myelin and contain intranuclear inclusions. Electron microscopy reveals the inclusions contain nonenveloped viruses. Which one of the following viruses is the MOST likely cause?

A. Adenovirus
B. Cytomegalovirus
C. Herpes simplex virus
D. JC virus
E. Coxsackie virus

Which one of the following laboratory tests would be the BEST to order to determine the number of CD4-positive cells in a patient infected with HIV?

A. Agglutination
B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
C. Flow cytometry
D. Immunoelectrophoresis
E. Ouchterlony gel assay
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Old 08-24-2011
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jc and flow cytometry
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Old 08-24-2011
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1).. JC virus ---> PML
2).. M between C and D ...
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Old 08-25-2011
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The answer is D.

Prions
Diseases
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD, and kuru. These are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. There is a hereditary form of CJD called Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome.
Characteristics
Prions are composed of protein only. They have no detectable nucleic acid and are highly resistant to UV light, formaldehyde, and heat. They are encoded by a cellular gene. The pathogenic form increases in amount by inducing conformational change in normal form. Normal conformation is alpha helix; abnormal is beta-pleated sheet. In GSS syndrome, a mutation occurs that enhances the probability of the conformational change to the beta-pleated sheet form.
Transmission
In most cases of CJD, mode of transmission is unknown. CJD has been transmitted by pituitary extracts, brain electrodes, and corneal transplants. Kuru was transmitted by ingestion or inoculation of human brain tissue. Variant CJD probably is transmitted by ingestion of cow brain tissue in undercooked food.
Pathogenesis
Aggregation of prion filaments within neurons occurs, vacuoles within neurons cause spongi-form changes in brain, no inflammation or immune response occurs.
Laboratory Diagnosis
Brain biopsy shows spongiform changes. No serologic tests. Prions cannot be grown in culture.
Treatment
None.
Prevention
There is no drug or vaccine.


This test is commonly used to measure the number of the various types of immunologically active blood cells. For example, it is used in HIV-infected patients to determine the number of CD4-positive T cells. In this test, the patient's cells are labeled with monoclonal antibody to the protein specific to the cell of interest, e.g., CD4 protein if the number of helper T cells is to be determined. The monoclonal antibody is tagged with a fluorescent dye, such as fluorescein or rhodamine. Single cells are passed through a laser light beam, and the number of cells that fluoresce is counted by use of a machine called a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS).
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  #5  
Old 08-25-2011
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Default is the ans d for both?

thanks for the ans
but is it d for both questions?

Quote:
Originally Posted by ricko335 View Post
The answer is D.

Prions
Diseases
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD, and kuru. These are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. There is a hereditary form of CJD called Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome.
Characteristics
Prions are composed of protein only. They have no detectable nucleic acid and are highly resistant to UV light, formaldehyde, and heat. They are encoded by a cellular gene. The pathogenic form increases in amount by inducing conformational change in normal form. Normal conformation is alpha helix; abnormal is beta-pleated sheet. In GSS syndrome, a mutation occurs that enhances the probability of the conformational change to the beta-pleated sheet form.
Transmission
In most cases of CJD, mode of transmission is unknown. CJD has been transmitted by pituitary extracts, brain electrodes, and corneal transplants. Kuru was transmitted by ingestion or inoculation of human brain tissue. Variant CJD probably is transmitted by ingestion of cow brain tissue in undercooked food.
Pathogenesis
Aggregation of prion filaments within neurons occurs, vacuoles within neurons cause spongi-form changes in brain, no inflammation or immune response occurs.
Laboratory Diagnosis
Brain biopsy shows spongiform changes. No serologic tests. Prions cannot be grown in culture.
Treatment
None.
Prevention
There is no drug or vaccine.


This test is commonly used to measure the number of the various types of immunologically active blood cells. For example, it is used in HIV-infected patients to determine the number of CD4-positive T cells. In this test, the patient's cells are labeled with monoclonal antibody to the protein specific to the cell of interest, e.g., CD4 protein if the number of helper T cells is to be determined. The monoclonal antibody is tagged with a fluorescent dye, such as fluorescein or rhodamine. Single cells are passed through a laser light beam, and the number of cells that fluoresce is counted by use of a machine called a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS).
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Old 08-25-2011
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i don't get !
jc virus is different from cjd disease!
answer is irrelevant to question?
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Old 08-25-2011
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Quote:
Originally Posted by dr_lizard View Post
i don't get !
jc virus is different from cjd disease!
answer is irrelevant to question?
I belive Ricko developed the prion disease after eating infected cow brain so he's posting CJD hehe (No offense ricko)

I agree with JC Virus causing PML (its the only one that fits?)
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