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Old 08-31-2011
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Warning! FA2011 pg 400 error ? ?

Guys is there a mistake in pg 400 of FA 2011 ?? I think the inhibitory pathway of basal ganglia is written falsely!! Atleast it is the opposite to what is in kaplan's!
Shouldnt the inhibitory pathway decrease motion?

Please correct me if i am wrong!
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Old 08-31-2011
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http://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/u...ata-110705.pdf

these r the mistakes in 2011 fa
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Old 08-31-2011
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in the indirect pathway, the motor cortices send activating signals to the caudate and putamen. The cells of the indirect pathway in the caudate and putamen that receive these signals are inhibitory and, once activated, they send inhibitory signals to the globus pallidus externus, reducing the activity in that nucleus. The globus pallidus externus normally sends inhibitory signals to the subthalamic nucleus. On activation of the indirect pathway, these inhibitory signals are reduced, which allows more activation of the subthalamic nucleus. Subthalamic nucleus cells can then send more activating signals to some parts of the globus pallidus internus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, parts of these two nuclei are driven to send more inhibitory signals to the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, which prevents the development of significant activity in the motor cerebral cortices. This behavior prevents the activation of motor cortical areas that would compete with the voluntary movement.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by dr_lizard View Post
in the indirect pathway, the motor cortices send activating signals to the caudate and putamen. The cells of the indirect pathway in the caudate and putamen that receive these signals are inhibitory and, once activated, they send inhibitory signals to the globus pallidus externus, reducing the activity in that nucleus. The globus pallidus externus normally sends inhibitory signals to the subthalamic nucleus. On activation of the indirect pathway, these inhibitory signals are reduced, which allows more activation of the subthalamic nucleus. Subthalamic nucleus cells can then send more activating signals to some parts of the globus pallidus internus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, parts of these two nuclei are driven to send more inhibitory signals to the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, which prevents the development of significant activity in the motor cerebral cortices. This behavior prevents the activation of motor cortical areas that would compete with the voluntary movement.
Thank you for your response.
Does that mean that the inhibtory pathway is intended to inhibit 'movements' that obscure the normal functioning of the body kinetics ?

& does that mean that when dopamine acts on either D1 or D2 receptors, it will eventuaqlly lead to inreased motion via either pathways ?

If so then i think i am grasping another concept here .
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Quote:
Originally Posted by hope007 View Post
Thank you for your response.
Does that mean that the inhibtory pathway is intended to inhibit 'movements' that obscure the normal functioning of the body kinetics ?

& does that mean that when dopamine acts on either D1 or D2 receptors, it will eventuaqlly lead to inreased motion via either pathways ?

If so then i think i am grasping another concept here .
The indirect pathway is inhibitory to movement. Excitatory projections from the cerebral cortex facilitates inhibitory projection neurons in the striatum. These project to the lateral (external) globus pallidus where they inhibit the tonic inhibitory output neurons. This decreases tonic inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus, resulting in increased excitatory output to the medial globus pallidus. The subthalamic nucleus is a small collection of excitatory neurons located at the junction between the midbrain and diencephalons. This excitatory input to the medial globus pallidus increases the inhibitory output from the medial globus pallidus to the thalamus, ultimately decreasing the excitatory feedback to the cerebral cortex. Note that the indirect pathway has opposite effects on the medial segment of the globus pallidus than does the direct pathway. Ultimately, the indirect pathway is inhibitory to motor cortical activity.
Dopamine projections from the substantia nigra, pars compacta, to the striatum have complex, and ultimately opposing effects on activity in the direct and indirect pathways . For example, dopamine acts primarily through dopamine D1 receptors on the neurons that participate in the direct pathway, exciting these neurons. It acts on dopamine D2 receptors on the striatal neurons that are involved in the indirect pathway. The D2 receptors are inhibitory. Therefore, dopamine excites the direct pathway and inhibits the indirect pathway, with a net effect to increase facilitatory inputs to the motor regions.
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