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  #1  
Old 09-28-2012
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Thumbs Up Biostats, Ethics, and Behavioral Sciences Thread

hey friends..
as i see many of the forum members feel difficulty with biostats and ethics(behavr.science),including myself.....i'm starting this thread for elaborating our knowledge.....i will post questions daily on biostats or ethics till the date of my exam.....please:sorry: feel free to answer/study/clarify the wrong ones or post the questions.....though many feel some questions as easy they may have chance to do mistakes (so be post, the easier and basic questions too)..
i may copy most of the questions from qbanks too..

NOTE----please post the correct answer for the questions within 5-6 hrs of posting the question

Last edited by venky2600; 09-28-2012 at 10:58 PM.
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  #2  
Old 09-28-2012
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Post 29-09-2012

today's questions---

1) a student have 1 week to USMLE step 1, he finds a new materialistic video of pharma....interestingly he watches it..the knowledge of the video most likely to reside in

a) conscious mind
b) subconscious mind
c) unconscious mind
d) superego
e) intellectualization

2) a pt. who used to see a physician since 4 yrs....presents sexual interests towards the physician..what is the action of the pt. correspond to..?
a) positve transference
b) negative transference
c) countertransference
d) superego
e) projection

Last edited by venky2600; 09-28-2012 at 11:08 PM.
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  #3  
Old 09-29-2012
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Default a,a

conscious mind, since just before the exam, positive transference
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  #4  
Old 09-29-2012
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Default (1)a (2)a

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
today's questions---

1) a student have 1 week to USMLE step 1, he finds a new materialistic video of pharma....interestingly he watches it..the knowledge of the video most likely to reside in

a) conscious mind
b) subconscious mind
c) unconscious mind
d) superego
e) intellectualization

2) a pt. who used to see a physician since 4 yrs....presents sexual interests towards the physician..what is the action of the pt. correspond to..?
a) positve transference
b) negative transference
c) countertransference
d) superego
e) projection
yes.....as conscious mind deals with the secondary thought process i.e. thinking logical,mature and time oriented. Regarding next question i will say it's obviously positive transference as evidenced from patient's behaviour to physician.
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  #5  
Old 09-29-2012
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Correct Answer A ,A

yes, 1) A
2) A are correct
...

1) conscious mind deals with learning new things,logic material,person is aware of.....as the question states just week before the exam,conscious mind is the right one
subconscious mind deals with the material not aware of or already learnt..it is the store house of memory(tragic/education)..
for example-----a person on first time drive learns how to put on brakes and gears(aware of).....and after he perfects in driving he put on brakes and gears unknowingly(unware as it's stored in subconscious mind)....
here in the question if the person learns the matter before a month or so....the answer would be subconscious mind

2)positive transference------transference is the feelings of the pt. towards the physician...it can be positive or negative
positive when-----pt. feels when their relationship is maintained well(either sexually desired or satisfactorily treated)
negative when----pt. feels uncomfortable in presence of physician(feeling annoyingly or unsatisfactorily with his treatment)..
countertransference-----is the physician feelings towards the pt..
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  #6  
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Question

3Q) a 6 yr old male child with 4 imaginary friends...what is the defense mechanism..?

a) regression
b) acting out
c) displacement
d) projection
e) dissociation
f) introjection
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Old 09-29-2012
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Arrow Regression

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
3Q) a 6 yr old male child with 4 imaginary friends...what is the defense mechanism..?

a) regression
b) acting out
c) displacement
d) projection
e) dissociation
f) introjection
Is it regression ?
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Old 09-29-2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
3Q) a 6 yr old male child with 4 imaginary friends...what is the defense mechanism..?

a) regression
b) acting out
c) displacement
d) projection
e) dissociation
f) introjection
A.REGRESSION..having imaginary frns is normal for 4yrs
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  #9  
Old 09-29-2012
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Correct Answer

3Q) a 6 yr old male child with 4 imaginary friends...what is the defense mechanism..?

a) regression
b) acting out
c) displacement
d) projection
e) dissociation
f) introjection



@trupti ,tai35------nice thinking......i would have answered the same way ,if i didnt listen to the video again

the answer for the 3rd question is D) projection ......

imaginary friends start to appear for child(around 30-40%) by 4yrs of age.......but they can be treated as normal till 9yrs of age
imaginary friends is projection cause..it's in their mind not outside that's appearing for them(like paranoia)....
it's considered as regression (or even acting out in some circumstances) after 9-10 yrs of age........it's in the kaplan video guys(i didnt remember reading it before)...

all the regression kind of things ,if at appropriate age is considered as normal and due to projection not regression
anyways....thanks for the answer....
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  #10  
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Question 30-09-2012

4 Q) An investigator was intersted in knowing the relationship of presence of a h/o STD to the occurrence of HIV .He sent out questionnaires regarding any h/o STD and also reviewed old medical records to look for the presence of the same in the sample of 100 being looked for presence of HIV infection.He could tabulate his data as following


...................................HIV +..................HIV -ve...................

STD present..................45....................... .....15.....................

STD absent...................22....................... ......18.....................


He wanted to know whether h/o STD is significant between the groups with and without HIV.The best test that could help him in accomplishing this task.

A t- test

B two way annova

C one way annova

D chi square

E Fishers's exact

F Mcnemars
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Old 09-29-2012
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D. chisquare?
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  #12  
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chi sqaure
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  #13  
Old 09-29-2012
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remind me please . thx
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Old 09-29-2012
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Correct Answer D is right

yes, D) chi square test is the right answer.......

here the question has 2 nominal variables(HIV and STD).....

1 variant)if the comparison is between 2 interval variables----correlation coefficient is used(like mean of weight compared with height)...values lies in between -1 to +1

2 variant)if the comparison between 1 interval and 1 nominal variable----t-test is used....it can be paired and unpaired(if there is no relation between the 2 variables)....e.g---comparing means of height of husband and wives
a)t-test is used for 2 variables and 2 groups only...
--if there is a comparison between 1 interval and nominal with more than 2 groups ANOVA is used..
b)one way-------2 variables(1 nominal and interval) more than 2groups
c)2 way------more than 2 variables( 1 nominal and 2 intervals) with any number of groups

3 variant)if the comparison between 2 nominal variables-----.--chissquare is used (and also mcnemar can be used)..also for proportional comparison

A)mcnemar is used if there is comparison between 1 group....e.g--STD +nt in HIV+ and - .......
B)if more than or equal to 2 groups present---chi square is used....here STD + and - (2 GROUPS) with HIV + or -
C)fisher exact test is the test....if in any of the taken 2 groups...n value is below 5-----fisher exact is used....(in this question ,there is nothing n value below 5)...

hope it understands....
thanks for answering...

Last edited by venky2600; 09-29-2012 at 10:45 PM.
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  #15  
Old 09-30-2012
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Question

5 Q) two separate randomized double-blind trials were done to see if administration of decreased homocysteine after diagnosing MI decreased risk for another MI. Both trials show e d that v itam in C re duce d the risk by 5% . This reduction was significant in one trial (P < 0.05); in the other, it was not significant. The best explanation for this difference betWeen the results of the two trials is ..?

(A) the researchers were "blind" in one trial but not in the other

(B) randomization did not evenly distribute the risk factors between the two trials.

(C) the sample sizes in the two trials were different.

(D) there was a placebo effect in one trial but not in the other.

(E) the concentration of homocysteine supplied was different between the two trials
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Question

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
5 Q) two separate randomized double-blind trials were done to see if administration of decreased homocysteine after diagnosing MI decreased risk for another MI. Both trials showed that the homocysteine use reduced the risk by 5% . This reduction was significant in one trial (P < 0.05); in the other, it was not significant. The best explanation for this difference betWeen the results of the two trials is ..?

(A) the researchers were "blind" in one trial but not in the other

(B) randomization did not evenly distribute the risk factors between the two trials.

(C) the sample sizes in the two trials were different.

(D) there was a placebo effect in one trial but not in the other.

(E) the concentration of homocysteine supplied was different between the two trials

typo here......please follow the question edited....
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  #17  
Old 09-30-2012
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i think C ,as as per my thinking its type 2 (b)error.........which cud be corrected by increasing sample size ...........so there might be difference in sample size
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Default my answer :)

(C) the sample sizes in the two trials were different.

too small sample size -> not enough power -> statistically not significant
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Correct Answer c is right

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
5 Q) two separate randomized double-blind trials were done to see if administration of decreased homocysteine after diagnosing MI decreased risk for another MI. Both trials showed that the homocysteine use reduced the risk by 5% . This reduction was significant in one trial (P < 0.05); in the other, it was not significant. The best explanation for this difference betWeen the results of the two trials is ..?

(A) the researchers were "blind" in one trial but not in the other

(B) randomization did not evenly distribute the risk factors between the two trials.

(C) the sample sizes in the two trials were different.

(D) there was a placebo effect in one trial but not in the other.

(E) the concentration of homocysteine supplied was different between the two trials

yes, C) the sample sizes are different is the right answer.....

the larger the sample size,the larger the power and less likely the type 1 error(alpha)......This decreased likelihood is reflected in a lower P value, and thus, a higher likelihood of significance for studies with a large sample size.

and also in the question stated...the risk was equal(5%)in 2 studies.....so if randomization/efficacy/blinding/placebo use are the answers..they would have differentiated the risk between 2 trials...
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Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
3Q) a 6 yr old male child with 4 imaginary friends...what is the defense mechanism..?

a) regression
b) acting out
c) displacement
d) projection
e) dissociation
f) introjection



@trupti ,tai35------nice thinking......i would have answered the same way ,if i didnt listen to the video again

the answer for the 3rd question is D) projection ......

imaginary friends start to appear for child(around 30-40%) by 4yrs of age.......but they can be treated as normal till 9yrs of age
imaginary friends is projection cause..it's in their mind not outside that's appearing for them(like paranoia)....
it's considered as regression (or even acting out in some circumstances) after 9-10 yrs of age........it's in the kaplan video guys(i didnt remember reading it before)...

all the regression kind of things ,if at appropriate age is considered as normal and due to projection not regression
anyways....thanks for the answer....
Oh..I see..Thanks for the correction
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Old 09-30-2012
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Question 6) genetics question-----01/10/12

NOTE---also adding genetics problem based questions..

6Q) A man and woman both affected by an autosomal dominant disorder which have 60% penetrance in individuals..they both are heterozygotes for the disease causing mutation..what is the probability they both produce phenotypically normal offspring together..?

a) 100%
b) 36%
c)45%
d)55%
e) 60-65% approx.
f) 40%
g) 25%
h) 0%
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Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
NOTE---also adding genetics problem based questions..

6Q) A man and woman both affected by an autosomal dominant disorder which have 60% penetrance in individuals..they both are heterozygotes for the disease causing mutation..what is the probability they both produce phenotypically normal offspring together..?

a) 100%
b) 36%
c)45%
d)55%
e) 60-65% approx.
f) 40%
g) 25%
h) 0%
Is it D.55%
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Arrow E

Is it 60-65 %
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Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
NOTE---also adding genetics problem based questions..

6Q) A man and woman both affected by an autosomal dominant disorder which have 60% penetrance in individuals..they both are heterozygotes for the disease causing mutation..what is the probability they both produce phenotypically normal offspring together..?

a) 100%
b) 36%
c)45%
d)55%
e) 60-65% approx.
f) 40%
g) 25%
h) 0%
d)55%......
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3/4 x 60 = 45% chance of being affected, so normal 100-45=55%
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  #26  
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Correct Answer

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
NOTE---also adding genetics problem based questions..

6Q) A man and woman both affected by an autosomal dominant disorder which have 60% penetrance in individuals..they both are heterozygotes for the disease causing mutation..what is the probability they both produce phenotypically normal offspring together..?

a) 100%
b) 36%
c)45%
d)55%
e) 60-65% approx.
f) 40%
g) 25%
h) 0%

the correct answer for 6thQ is D)55%


explanation ---:--in autosomal dominant----if both heterozygote individuals mate ---> offsprings would be 75% (3/4) would be affected and 25% (1/4) would be unaffected---(coz heterozygote individuals also present the disease mutation in autosomal dominant disease)

so with 75% probability and with 60% penetrance in the population-----0.75*0.60 =0.450 are affected...
45% is the probability of the offspring affected by the mutation(diseased)
the question asked the probability of unaffected----so, 100%-45% =55%
55% of the offsprings are unaffected by this parents....

thanks
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  #27  
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the correct answer for 6thQ is D)55%


explanation ---:--in autosomal dominant----if both heterozygote individuals mate ---> offsprings would be 75% (3/4) would be affected and 25% (1/4) would be unaffected---(coz heterozygote individuals also present the disease mutation in autosomal dominant disease)

so with 75% probability and with 60% penetrance in the population-----0.75*0.60 =0.450 are affected...
45% is the probability of the offspring affected by the mutation(diseased)
the question asked the probability of unaffected----so, 100%-45% =55%
55% of the offsprings are unaffected by this parents....

thanks
but venky.i have one doubt..........they have asked phenotypically normal...........so dont we have to count genotypically and phenotypically normal ie. 25% of offsprings too??????????????and if no then why so??????
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Old 10-01-2012
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but venky.i have one doubt..........they have asked phenotypically normal...........so dont we have to count genotypically and phenotypically normal ie. 25% of offsprings too??????????????and if no then why so??????
Can't do that since disease has only 60% penetrance not 100% so probability of being normal higher than 25% .
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but venky.i have one doubt..........they have asked phenotypically normal...........so dont we have to count genotypically and phenotypically normal ie. 25% of offsprings too??????????????and if no then why so??????
thanks kabutar111

ya, it asked phenotypically normal..but inorder to find we have to find first the probability of affected in the family..as mutation is only 60% penetrance(has 40% chance to incomplete penetrance--means mutated gene present but phenotypically not expressed)...
generally penetrance in a family is calculated from obligate carriers(those who are phenotypically and genotypically mutated)..
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Old 10-01-2012
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Question 7th question

7 Q) a male 3rd yr medical resident in a multispeciality hospital have the habit of daily drinking a beer..after a series of 12hrs continuous work shift he went to bar and talks to bartender.."really had tough time today..time to grab a beer"..what is the defense mechanism the resident is using..?

a) sublimation
b) displacement
c) rationalization
d) projection
e) intellectualization
f) splitting
g) suppression
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7 Q) a male 3rd yr medical resident in a multispeciality hospital have the habit of daily drinking a beer..after a series of 12hrs continuous work shift he went to bar and talks to bartender.."really had tough time today..time to grab a beer"..what is the defense mechanism the resident is using..?

a) sublimation
b) displacement
c) rationalization
d) projection
e) intellectualization
f) splitting
g) suppression
My answer is C) Rationalization, because the resident is trying to find a logical argument for his feelings.
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7 Q) a male 3rd yr medical resident in a multispeciality hospital have the habit of daily drinking a beer..after a series of 12hrs continuous work shift he went to bar and talks to bartender.."really had tough time today..time to grab a beer"..what is the defense mechanism the resident is using..?

a) sublimation
b) displacement
c) rationalization
d) projection
e) intellectualization
f) splitting
g) suppression
sublimation?
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rationalisation
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Default Rationalization

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
7 Q) a male 3rd yr medical resident in a multispeciality hospital have the habit of daily drinking a beer..after a series of 12hrs continuous work shift he went to bar and talks to bartender.."really had tough time today..time to grab a beer"..what is the defense mechanism the resident is using..?

a) sublimation
b) displacement
c) rationalization
d) projection
e) intellectualization
f) splitting
g) suppression
finding a rational excuse of his drinking habit.
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Correct Answer c is right

7 Q) a male 3rd yr medical resident in a multispeciality hospital have the habit of daily drinking a beer..after a series of 12hrs continuous work shift he went to bar and talks to bartender.."really had tough time today..time to grab a beer"..what is the defense mechanism the resident is using..?

the correct answer for 7th Q is C) rationalization


as koolkiller and teona said the resident is finding reasons for drinking a(string of reasons) beer is the most appropriate one

sublimation is the mechanism of changing the unaccepted impulse with the most accepted one----though drinking may give comforts for the person,but it must be socially acceptable for making it into sublimation(ex--if a medical resident who is a binge drinker stops drinking and do 24hrs duty..it would have come under sublimation)

best other example for rationalization---a person who fails in an exam gives a string of reasons that the exam was tough to write for anyone (or) that exam was not at standard of him to pass...

i think rest of the other options can be easily excluded..(do have any queries for other please be posted...let's discuss them too..)

note(it refers to everyone)-----please do post any of the :sorry:behavr.science/genetics/biostats questions,if you got any?(though they might be easy,but someone may not answer)....so that i can extend my subject knowledge in them

thanks again...
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Nice thread venky!!
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8Q) A 20 year old woman comes to her physician and asks him about the side effects of marijuana. She recently made a new boyfriend and since then they both use marijuana on a regular basis. The doctor responds: "So, you are telling me that you've been starting smoking marijuana since you've made the new boyfriend?" Which of the following interviewing techniques is the physician using?

A) Reflection
B) Confrontation
C) Empathy
D) Support
E) Facilitation

P.S. I find this thread to be very very useful. I hope there will be lots of questions posted here.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Teona View Post
8Q) A 20 year old woman comes to her physician and asks him about the side effects of marijuana. She recently made a new boyfriend and since then they both use marijuana on a regular basis. The doctor responds: "So, you are telling me that you've been starting smoking marijuana since you've made the new boyfriend?" Which of the following interviewing techniques is the physician using?

A) Reflection
B) Confrontation
C) Empathy
D) Support
E) Facilitation

P.S. I find this thread to be very very useful. I hope there will be lots of questions posted here.
thanks teona

i will go for A) reflection( like mirror--repeating what the pt. says)........

but wait for actual explanation
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A newly married, healthy, unrelated couple comes to your office because they are concerned about risk of having a child with genetic disease. They are specifically concerned about PKU which is an Autosomal Recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000. Which of the following best represent their risk of having a child with the disease?

a) 1/50
b) 1/2,500
c) 1/10,000
d) 1/400
e) 1/100
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Quote:
Originally Posted by drZoe View Post
9th Q)A newly married, healthy, unrelated couple comes to your office because they are concerned about risk of having a child with genetic disease. They are specifically concerned about PKU which is an Autosomal Recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000. Which of the following best represent their risk of having a child with the disease?

a) 1/50
b) 1/2,500
c) 1/10,000
d) 1/400
e) 1/100
thanks for the question.....please do follow the order of questions and number them..

this question is 9th Question......so,as both 8th and 9th questions have not been answered yet...everyone can give answers to any of the both questions..

my answer is d) 1/400.....

but not sure,thinking i'm missing some basic logic here
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Default my answer :)

Quote:
Originally Posted by drZoe View Post
A newly married, healthy, unrelated couple comes to your office because they are concerned about risk of having a child with genetic disease. They are specifically concerned about PKU which is an Autosomal Recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000. Which of the following best represent their risk of having a child with the disease?

a) 1/50
b) 1/2,500
c) 1/10,000
d) 1/400
e) 1/100
c) 1/10,000

since they're both healthy they must be both heterozygots (any other combination would give the risk level 0%).

q - mutated allele
q2 = 1/10,000
q = 1/100

p=99/100 ~ 1
2pq = 2 x 1 x 1/100 = 1/50
so the probability that one of them is a heterozygous is 1/50
the probability that both of them are heterozygous = 1/50 x 1/50 = 1/2,500
the probability that their child will be a recessive homozygous is 1/4

so 1/2,500 x 1/4 = 1/10,000 which is basically equal to the general population prevalence
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Default my answer :)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Teona View Post
8Q) A 20 year old woman comes to her physician and asks him about the side effects of marijuana. She recently made a new boyfriend and since then they both use marijuana on a regular basis. The doctor responds: "So, you are telling me that you've been starting smoking marijuana since you've made the new boyfriend?" Which of the following interviewing techniques is the physician using?

A) Reflection
B) Confrontation
C) Empathy
D) Support
E) Facilitation

P.S. I find this thread to be very very useful. I hope there will be lots of questions posted here.
A) Reflection
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Correct Answer Correct answer

Quote:
Originally Posted by Teona View Post
8Q) A 20 year old woman comes to her physician and asks him about the side effects of marijuana. She recently made a new boyfriend and since then they both use marijuana on a regular basis. The doctor responds: "So, you are telling me that you've been starting smoking marijuana since you've made the new boyfriend?" Which of the following interviewing techniques is the physician using?

A) Reflection
B) Confrontation
C) Empathy
D) Support
E) Facilitation

P.S. I find this thread to be very very useful. I hope there will be lots of questions posted here.
The correct answer is A) Reflection. Is an interview technique where the physician repeats what the patient has just told. This technique assures the patient that the physician has been listening to his concerns and allow the patient to clarify any points that have been misunderstood.

B) Confrontation draws the patient's attention to discrepancies in his/her statements;

C) Empathy is expression of vicarious understanding of a patient's feelings and emotions like "I can understand what you are feeling right now"

D)Support is expression of concern for a patient's experiences and well being like "It must have been really hard for you"

E) Facilitation- the interviewer encourages the patient to talk more about his/her experiences like "Tell me more about what you feel"
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Question 02/10/2012-----10th Question

10 Q).The age of onset of a degenerative neurologic disease is 35.
Epidemiologic
study of affected persons indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected), and occur
equally in men and women. However, a subset of cases consists of two
affected siblings in a family. The best description of this disease is
a. Inherited
b. Genetic
c. Sporadic
d. Congenital
e. Familial
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Default my answer :)

Q10
c. Sporadic
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Quote:
Originally Posted by drZoe View Post
A newly married, healthy, unrelated couple comes to your office because they are concerned about risk of having a child with genetic disease. They are specifically concerned about PKU which is an Autosomal Recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000. Which of the following best represent their risk of having a child with the disease?

a) 1/50
b) 1/2,500
c) 1/10,000
d) 1/400
e) 1/100
Answer to Q9 is c) 1/10,000. Cassandra you explained it well!

Using the Hardy Weinberg Equation: p2+2pq+q2
q2=1/10,000
q= 1/100

You need to calculate carrier frequencies for both parents in order to have a diseased (homozygous) child...
2pq= 2 x 1 x (1/100)= 1/50

The probability of having a diseased child= carrier freq of both parents x risk of being homozygous (using punnett square crossing 2 heterozygots.)

=1/50 x 1/50 x 1/4 = 1/10,000 (which is equal to the disease prevalence since both parents are healthy and unrelated)
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Correct Answer 10) E is right

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
10 Q).The age of onset of a degenerative neurologic disease is 35.
Epidemiologic
study of affected persons indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected), and occur
equally in men and women. However, a subset of cases consists of two
affected siblings in a family. The best description of this disease is
a. Inherited
b. Genetic
c. Sporadic
d. Congenital
e. Familial

the correct answer for the 10th Q is E) familial


copied from the other forum....so according to it explanation as follows


e) familial----implies a trait or disorder tends to cluster in families....

b) genetic-----there is evidence that a gene or chromosome is causing the disease

a) inherited-----evidence of vertical transmission(like father to daughter,mother to son) is seen in a disorder

d) congenital-----present at birth(not all congenital causes are genetic )

c) sporadic-----no evidence for either vertical transmission or familial clustering is lacking in a family....
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Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post

the correct answer for the 10th Q is E) familial


copied from the other forum....so according to it explanation as follows


e) familial----implies a trait or disorder tends to cluster in families....

b) genetic-----there is evidence that a gene or chromosome is causing the disease

a) inherited-----evidence of vertical transmission(like father to daughter,mother to son) is seen in a disorder

d) congenital-----present at birth(not all congenital causes are genetic )

c) sporadic-----no evidence for either vertical transmission or familial clustering is lacking in a family....
@venky2600 but how does their explanation make sense?
in the stem it says "indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected)" so where/how does it cluster in families in here?
I'd appreciate your comment on that
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Casandra View Post
@venky2600 but how does their explanation make sense?
in the stem it says "indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected)" so where/how does it cluster in families in here?
I'd appreciate your comment on that
Epidemiologic study of affected persons indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected), and occur
equally in men and women. However, a subset of cases consists of two
affected siblings in a family.
i dont know whether my explanation understands you or not..
here neither neighbours or relatives are affected by the disease but usually if it affects,it affect 2 siblings in a family .(includes men or women).......that's familial origin i guess(usually a familial origin can affect similarly to 2 siblings i guess)....do sporadic also exist in 2 siblings in a family..? i don't know
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Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
Epidemiologic study of affected persons indicates that most cases occur in the
spring, are isolated (i.e., no neighbors or relatives are affected), and occur
equally in men and women. However, a subset of cases consists of two
affected siblings in a family.
i dont know whether my explanation understands you or not..
here neither neighbours or relatives are affected by the disease but usually if it affects,it affect 2 siblings in a family .(includes men or women).......that's familial origin i guess(usually a familial origin can affect similarly to 2 siblings i guess)....do sporadic also exist in 2 siblings in a family..? i don't know
they said there's only 1 pair of siblings that shared the disease. is this enough to say that's a familial disease??? I would assume it would be more due to a chance since 99,999% of other cases were isolated...

so to get the concept right: if we have 1000 isolated cases of the disease and 1 pair of siblings among them, this is enough to say it's familial????

edited: ok, so I think I know where I misunderstood the question. By the subset they mean a whole subgroup, not just a pair of siblings. if so, that makes sense, it's neither genetic nor inherited. and additionally sounds like a multifactorial disease.

thanks for the question venky2600!
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Question 03/10/12-----11th Q

11Q) A very small premature infant was born in the delivery room by NSVD (normal spontaneous vaginal delivery). The attending physician decided not to resuscitate the newborn. Physician spoke to the mother. Mother started to cry. Newborn expired after 30 minutes. Is the physician liable for the newborn's death?

A) Yes
b) no
c) cannot be concluded from the given data

answer may vary from state to states....follow according to U.S ethics..

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Quote:
Originally Posted by drZoe View Post
Answer to Q9 is c) 1/10,000. Cassandra you explained it well!

Using the Hardy Weinberg Equation: p2+2pq+q2
q2=1/10,000
q= 1/100

You need to calculate carrier frequencies for both parents in order to have a diseased (homozygous) child...
2pq= 2 x 1 x (1/100)= 1/50

The probability of having a diseased child= carrier freq of both parents x risk of being homozygous (using punnett square crossing 2 heterozygots.)

=1/50 x 1/50 x 1/4 = 1/10,000 (which is equal to the disease prevalence since both parents are healthy and unrelated)
Nicely explained but i was just thinking that
PKU is an AR disease.
So q2 would be prevalence of disease in this case.
and As mentioned prevalence - 1/10,000
So risk of child having a disease would be equal to prevalence (as in AR disease only homozygous individuals are affected)

So what i actually mean is without doing any calculations like that can we conclude our result in a similar manner as i mentioned above?
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Default NO

Quote:
Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
11Q) A very small premature infant was born in the delivery room by NSVD (normal spontaneous vaginal delivery). The attending physician decided not to resuscitate the newborn. Physician spoke to the mother. Mother started to cry. Newborn expired after 30 minutes. Is the physician liable for the newborn's death?

A) Yes
b) no
c) cannot be concluded from the given data

answer may vary from state to states....follow according to U.S ethics..

YA i also think it depends on state to state rules.
but i would go with answer B. No

If someone see greys anatomy " There was a child of one of intern (whose bf is from Cleveland clinic). That child was premature and was failing to thrive. So that Cleveland clinic bf calculated some criteria s and stuff and said "child chances of survival is less then 5%". So its better not to resuscitate that child but our heroic Seattle grace doctor tried to save that child (obviously by mother consent )
Lot of rubbish stuff written so don't read if you are not familiar. Just concentrate on my answer.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by koolkiller88 View Post

So what i actually mean is without doing any calculations like that can we conclude our result in a similar manner as i mentioned above?
you are right as far as genetic make up of either parent is not known..

i.e, if one of them is a known carrier or affected then we have to calculate..
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Quote:
Originally Posted by koolkiller88 View Post
YA i also think it depends on state to state rules.
but i would go with answer B. No

If someone see greys anatomy " There was a child of one of intern (whose bf is from Cleveland clinic). That child was premature and was failing to thrive. So that Cleveland clinic bf calculated some criteria s and stuff and said "child chances of survival is less then 5%". So its better not to resuscitate that child but our heroic Seattle grace doctor tried to save that child (obviously by mother consent )
Lot of rubbish stuff written so don't read if you are not familiar. Just concentrate on my answer.


I love grey's anatomy! Haha and i know exactly what your talking about.

But as far as the answer goes- think it depends on how many weeks is the baby premature and his actual chances of having a normal life?
Since that's not mentioned.. i would still stay say NO
Tricky question!!

Great thread btw Venky!! Really helpful
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Correct Answer b is the answer

11Q) A very small premature infant was born in the delivery room by NSVD (normal spontaneous vaginal delivery). The attending physician decided not to resuscitate the newborn. Physician spoke to the mother. Mother started to cry. Newborn expired after 30 minutes. Is the physician liable for the newborn's death?

A) Yes
b) no
c) cannot be concluded from the given data

answer may vary from state to states....follow according to U.S ethics..

thanks koolkiller

the correct answer for 11th Q) is B) No......
Please remember, no physician in the USA has ever been found liable for withholding or withdrawing any life sustaining treatment from any patient for any reason.
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Default Q 12 P53 mutation ethics

A normal 6 yr old girl has a strong family history of cancer, including some relatives with li-fraumeni syndrome. Her parents request that she have genetic testing for a possible cancer gene. The major ethical concern about such testing is

A. Nonmaleficence
B. Beneficence
C. Autonomy
D. Informed consent
E. Confidentiality
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i'll go with B) beneficience
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autonomy. beneficence is good for pt not to be matter of concern for Doc.

love this thread !!
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Quote:
Originally Posted by koolkiller88 View Post
A normal 6 yr old girl has a strong family history of cancer, including some relatives with li-fraumeni syndrome. Her parents request that she have genetic testing for a possible cancer gene. The major ethical concern about such testing is

A. Nonmaleficence
B. Beneficence
C. Autonomy
D. Informed consent
E. Confidentiality

D. Informed consent
the parents want to know but can a child decide whether she wants to know all her life she will develop ca at some point. I think that's the issue here...
Nice question!
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Default i think beneficence.

explanation: the doctor has a duty to act in the best interest standard of the patient ..the patient here is a six year old child .. if the test turns out to be positive , there is no way to help the pt and moreover the it could lead to issues like child neglect and so on.. so i think the doctor should not go for it and let nature take its course
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Quote:
Originally Posted by koolkiller88 View Post
Nicely explained but i was just thinking that
PKU is an AR disease.
So q2 would be prevalence of disease in this case.
and As mentioned prevalence - 1/10,000
So risk of child having a disease would be equal to prevalence (as in AR disease only homozygous individuals are affected)

So what i actually mean is without doing any calculations like that can we conclude our result in a similar manner as i mentioned above?
haha ya sure you can! But there is a valid reason behind it in case u are wondering.
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11Q) A very small premature infant was born in the delivery room by NSVD (normal spontaneous vaginal delivery). The attending physician decided not to resuscitate the newborn. Physician spoke to the mother. Mother started to cry. Newborn expired after 30 minutes. Is the physician liable for the newborn's death?

A) Yes
b) no
c) cannot be concluded from the given data

answer may vary from state to states....follow according to U.S ethics..

thanks koolkiller

the correct answer for 11th Q) is B) No......
Please remember, no physician in the USA has ever been found liable for withholding or withdrawing any life sustaining treatment from any patient for any reason.
Venky first of all thanks for the awesome thread and then could you plz explain this a bit.If no physician has never been found liable for any reason before ,does that mean that no physician will ever be found liable in the future? I don't disagree with the answer though.Thanks
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Venky first of all thanks for the awesome thread and then could you plz explain this a bit.If no physician has never been found liable for any reason before ,does that mean that no physician will ever be found liable in the future? I don't disagree with the answer though.Thanks
ya according to US ethical issues are concerned.....not liable for withholding or withdrawing any life sustained treatment it means---they do not withhold treatments unless any serious condition exists(like for example that in some cases chances will be very less that though resuscitation been done pt. may not survive like prematurity here...)..hope it understands
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ya according to US ethical issues are concerned.....not liable for withholding or withdrawing any life sustained treatment it means---they do not withhold treatments unless any serious condition exists(like for example that in some cases chances will be very less that though resuscitation been done pt. may not survive like prematurity here...)..hope it understands
Ok that clarify things...Thanks
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Question 04/10/12----13th Q

q) a 36 yr old male has been arrived to a physician and threatens to treat him..his complains include unable to sleep since 10 days with depressed mood and anxious though sometimes..his past history includes excess substance abuse and associated with use of alcohol and smoking too, his feelings after substance he abused are creating manic states which makes him to do anything but no suicidal thoughts ...physician remembers the pt. watching in television for threatening to kill someone ..the substance abused is mostly..?
a) AMPHETAMINE
B) LSD
C) ALCOHOL
D) PCP
E) COCAINE
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q) a 36 yr old male has been arrived to a physician and threatens to treat him..his complains include unable to sleep since 10 days with depressed mood and anxious though sometimes..his past history includes excess substance abuse and associated with use of alcohol and smoking too, his feelings after substance he abused are creating manic states which makes him to do anything but no suicidal thoughts ...physician remembers the pt. Watching in television for threatening to kill someone ..the substance abused is mostly..?
A) amphetamine
b) lsd
c) alcohol
d) pcp
e) cocaine
d. Pcp?????
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A normal 6 yr old girl has a strong family history of cancer, including some relatives with li-fraumeni syndrome. Her parents request that she have genetic testing for a possible cancer gene. The major ethical concern about such testing is

A. Nonmaleficence
B. Beneficence
C. Autonomy
D. Informed consent
E. Confidentiality
Yes D. Informed consent is right answer.
As its the major ethical concern in front of doctor.
It could be B. Beneficence if that would be any disease whose prognosis varies with early detection or doctor can help patient anyhow after diagnosis.
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Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
q) a 36 yr old male has been arrived to a physician and threatens to treat him..his complains include unable to sleep since 10 days with depressed mood and anxious though sometimes..his past history includes excess substance abuse and associated with use of alcohol and smoking too, his feelings after substance he abused are creating manic states which makes him to do anything but no suicidal thoughts ...physician remembers the pt. watching in television for threatening to kill someone.on physical exam---EEG-normal ,no pupillary changes seen,no urine and blood levels of substance use is evidenced ..the substance abused is mostly..?
a) AMPHETAMINE
B) LSD
C) ALCOHOL
D) PCP
E) COCAINE
physical examination changes
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physical examination changes
d.PCP..threatening to kill others(homicidality)is characteristic of PCP abuse..aftereffects viz.anxiety,depression etc. are evident..other causes can be ruled out as per the physical exam findings
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hey friends..
as i see many of the forum members feel difficulty with biostats and ethics(behavr.science),including myself.....i'm starting this thread for elaborating our knowledge.....i will post questions daily on biostats or ethics till the date of my exam.....please:sorry: feel free to answer/study/clarify the wrong ones or post the questions.....though many feel some questions as easy they may have chance to do mistakes (so be post, the easier and basic questions too)..
i may copy most of the questions from qbanks too..

NOTE----please post the correct answer for the questions within 5-6 hrs of posting the question
nice thread!keep it up
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Nice thread, super nice discussion!


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Originally Posted by venky2600 View Post
hey friends..
as i see many of the forum members feel difficulty with biostats and ethics(behavr.science),including myself.....i'm starting this thread for elaborating our knowledge.....i will post questions daily on biostats or ethics till the date of my exam.....please:sorry: feel free to answer/study/clarify the wrong ones or post the questions.....though many feel some questions as easy they may have chance to do mistakes (so be post, the easier and basic questions too)..
i may copy most of the questions from qbanks too..

NOTE----please post the correct answer for the questions within 5-6 hrs of posting the question
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Correct Answer D is right

13 q) a 36 yr old male has been arrived to a physician and threatens to treat him..his complains include unable to sleep since 10 days with depressed mood and anxious though sometimes..his past history includes excess substance abuse and associated with use of alcohol and smoking too, his feelings after substance he abused are creating manic states which makes him to do anything but no suicidal thoughts ...physician remembers the pt. watching in television for threatening to kill someone.on physical exam---EEG-normal ,no pupillary changes seen,no urine and blood levels of substance use is evidenced ..the substance abused is mostly..?
a) AMPHETAMINE
B) LSD
C) ALCOHOL
D) PCP
E) COCAINE


the correct answer for 13th Q is d) PCP....
from the pt.'s history of substance abuse symptoms like----homicidality,psychomotor agitation--would most likely be seen with hallucinogens like PCP........and the present changes seen in pts....depressed mood,unable to sleep,anxious feeling ,normal EEG with no pupillary changes---states he is in withdrawal of abused substance-----
so,PCP would be the most appropriate answer ..
thanks everyone who answered
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Question 14th and 15th Q

14 Q) a 14yr old female taken by parents for evaluation of her stunted growth and no menstruation to a physician nearby...after examining the girl privately,she insists the physician to tell the diagnosis to herself, unable to calm her curiosity physician tells her she has turner's syndrome which leads to amenorrhea in future .she couldnt digest the diagnosis of her not becoming a mother in future..she asks the physician no to tell abt. her diagnosis to her parents as they will be much worried abt her and also please the physician to be with her side in this matter.what is the most appropriate step physician would do..?

a) not to inform the parents as the pt. insisted as it would cause them depression
b) inform the parents that the child has no stunted growth or menstruation abnormalities
c) threaten the pt. to inform her parents by calling everyday
d) inform the parents the pt. diagnosis and the consequences
e) inform to the health department and assure the pt. they won't notify the pt's identity to their parents

15 Q) a healthy married couple comes to physician and asks they want to sell the sperm ,eggs and embryo ..they tells they got this idea from one of their friends who recently sold sperms and eggs at a fertility clinic..what is the most appropriate physician response for this..?

a) it's unethical to donate or sell sperms, eggs or embryo
b) take the pt's friend address and inform to the police about it..
c) it's unethical to donate the embryo, but you can sell the sperms or eggs
d) it's unethical to sell the eggs or embryo but can donate them.
e) refer them to your fellow physician known who accepts them...


sorry guys...
i seldom comes online these days...so i may not post in this thread efficiently...so this may be my last post in this thread....thanks everyone for your answers and discussions.....good luck to all of you
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Default D's

Thanks for all these questions venky they are reall nice review stuff.
14. d) inform the parents the pt. diagnosis and the consequences
Not sure as its a tough choice.
According to me most appropriate that encourage the patient to tell herself to her parents.

But this option is nice "c) threaten the pt. to inform her parents by calling everyday".... hahaha (i would have done this to Bill gates daughter )

15. d) it's unethical to sell the eggs or embryo but can donate them. (reminds me of Vicky Donor movie ;-) )
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Default my answer :)

14)a) not to inform the parents as the pt. insisted as it would cause them depression
15) d) it's unethical to sell the eggs or embryo but can donate them - I think it should say fertilized eggs bc selling unfertilized eggs is legal.

Last edited by Casandra; 10-06-2012 at 03:31 AM.
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d)
c).........
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Thanks for all these questions venky they are reall nice review stuff.
14. d) inform the parents the pt. diagnosis and the consequences
Not sure as its a tough choice.
According to me most appropriate that encourage the patient to tell herself to her parents.

But this option is nice "c) threaten the pt. to inform her parents by calling everyday".... hahaha (i would have done this to Bill gates daughter )

15. d) it's unethical to sell the eggs or embryo but can donate them. (reminds me of Vicky Donor movie ;-) )
HA HA .. I also think 14.d and 15.d
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14) a
15) D
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Correct Answer

well done all of you...thanks

14 Q)
a 14yr old female taken by parents for evaluation of her stunted growth and no menstruation to a physician nearby...after examining the girl privately,she insists the physician to tell the diagnosis to herself, unable to calm her curiosity physician tells her she has turner's syndrome which leads to amenorrhea in future .she couldnt digest the diagnosis of her not becoming a mother in future..she asks the physician no to tell abt. her diagnosis to her parents as they will be much worried abt her and also please the physician to be with her side in this matter.what is the most appropriate step physician would do..?

a) not to inform the parents as the pt. insisted as it would cause them depression
b) inform the parents that the child has no stunted growth or menstruation abnormalities
c) threaten the pt. to inform her parents by calling everyday
d) inform the parents the pt. diagnosis and the consequences
e) inform to the health department and assure the pt. they won't notify the pt's identity to their parents

the most appropriate answer for the 14th Q) is D) inform the parents the pt. diagnosis and the consequences

according to ethical principles,,the pt. here is minor(and also not suffer from STD)...so, already physician did broke the ethical rules of informing the diagnosis to the pt. itself,so informing the pt.'s parents the most reputed and responsible physician should do... if the physician withhold the diagnosis with the parents,he will also be liable for further consequences..so informing the parents is the most appropriate one...and also discussion with them regarding the consequences and risk preventions must be indicated..

a)..depression is not considered as the serious outcome to withhold the diagnosis.....and there is no clear evidence stated that informing the diagnosis would lead to depression like conditions(like previous trauma,cerebrovascular risks,previous history etc)...so it can't be the right one

b) informing the false diagnosis to the parents is also against the ethical rules...again the pt. here is minor..so parents has the right to know the diagnosis ..

c) threatening the pt. is again against the ethical rules...never threaten the pt.s unless any serious harm indicated to someone from pt. and also withholding the diagnosis and daily calling won't be considered a responsible physician would do

e) it may be the right answer if she suffers from any STD or infectious disease.....informing genetic diseases is not the part of health department
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Correct Answer 14)D and 15) D are right

15 Q) a healthy married couple comes to physician and asks they want to sell the sperm ,eggs and embryo ..they tells they got this idea from one of their friends who recently sold sperms and eggs at a fertility clinic..what is the most appropriate physician response for this..?

a) it's unethical to donate or sell sperms, eggs or embryo
b) take the pt's friend address and inform to the police about it..
c) it's unethical to donate the embryo, but you can sell the sperms or eggs
d) it's unethical to sell the eggs or embryo but can donate them.
e) refer them to your fellow physician known who accepts them...


the correct answer is D) it's unethical to sell eggs or embryo but can donate them...

truly speaking....nowadays sperm and eggs donation has been tremendously increased...so guessing it's kinda high yield topic for exam,better to know everything about it...

as told by @casandra
it's ethical to sell and donate sperms and eggs(unfertilized)....
it's ethical to donate embryo(fertilized) but not ethical to sell embryo
...

so not to encourage the persons who come to sell embryos and not the fellow physicians either...
informing the police is not acceptable either as many people who comes to sell are due to lack of proper knowledge about donation and selling...a mere advice is what needed as the most responsible physician would do.....

thanks....
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Originally Posted by eshaan View Post
but venky.i have one doubt..........they have asked phenotypically normal...........so dont we have to count genotypically and phenotypically normal ie. 25% of offsprings too??????????????and if no then why so??????
The 55% actually does take into account BOTH diseased but phenotypically normal as well as homozygous normal (aa)

Another way to calculate this equation is that you have a 40% chance of NOT presenting with the disease.

When you multiply 40% by 75% you get 30% chance.

The answer presented to us was 55% so the 55% is actually the 30% chance to be a phenotypically normal diseased individual (Aa or AA) + 25% being a completely healthy nondiseased individual (aa).
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The 55% actually does take into account BOTH diseased but phenotypically normal as well as homozygous normal (aa)

Another way to calculate this equation is that you have a 40% chance of NOT presenting with the disease.

When you multiply 40% by 75% you get 30% chance.

The answer presented to us was 55% so the 55% is actually the 30% chance to be a phenotypically normal diseased individual (Aa or AA) + 25% being a completely healthy nondiseased individual (aa).
thanks for you rreply...................but i figured it out that day...........but still appreciate your effort.................
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Nice thread..Thanks..
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