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Old 10-03-2012
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Wink Doubts while reading for Step 1

I am starting this thread so that we can ask each other doubts which we come across while reading or doing questions.
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Old 10-03-2012
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Default 1st doubt

Today i was doing questions about Rb tumor suppressor gene.
Which had to presentations

1. retinoblastoma- bilateral tumor
2. retinoblastome- unilateral tumor (more common)

So What i mean to discuss here is what can be the cause of 2 different presentations.
According to my understanding i think
As Rb is tumor suppressor gene so it follow 2 hit hypothesis (1 genetic factor + 1 sporodic factor)
So those individual who have 1 genetic mutation can develop 2nd sporodic mutation anywhere and get bilateral retinoblastoma

But then regarding unilateral tumor i think its totally sporadic based 1.e. in one eye 2 sporadic mutation takes place. As its uncommon to have so many sporadic mutation in multiple place. So these individuals have Unilateral tumor.

So i need some more opinions about this thoughts
@venky: If this can be logical it can explain why beckwith weidmann syndrome is sporadic without any WT-1 suppression.
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Old 10-03-2012
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and also thinks...achondroplasia also occurs in the same way (can be sporadic or inherited)
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Old 10-04-2012
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Default

I know increase in arterial or venous pressure causes increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure.

But any idea, How
1. Arteriolar dilation
2. Venous constriction (may be increase venous pressure)
3. Heart failure
4. Extracellular volume expansion
5. Standing

All these factor increase capillary hydrostatic pressure???
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Old 10-04-2012
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But any idea, How
1. Arteriolar dilation -> increased flow -> increased hydrostatic pressure
2. Venous constriction (may be increase venous pressure) -> decrease in venous pooling force (they have less negative pressure) -> upstream/back build up blood volume -> increased hydrostatic pressure
3. Heart failure -> a bit similar to no.2 -> build up of upstream blood volume -> increased hydrostatic pressure
4. Extracellular volume expansion -> increased amount of fluid -> increased hydrostatic pressure
5. Standing -> gravity
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Old 10-04-2012
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Question

can any one explain me more about myocardial stunning and hibernation of myocardium............i'm unable to get a clear idea from uworld description

do they also cause reperfusion injury..?
how long a normal heart can sustain ischemia without causing reperfusion injury..???
thanks...
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Old 10-05-2012
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Speaking of reperfusion injury, I am unsure how it occurs. How does restoring blood flow exacerbate free radical injury?
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