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  #1  
Old 01-13-2013
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Arrow Billy Step 1 Questions # 97, 98

The pancreas is derived from two elements of the foregut: the ventral pancreatic bud and the dorsal pancreatic bud. The ventral bud is responsible for part of the head, the uncinate process, and one other structure. Which of the following is the additional structure formed from the ventral pancreatic bud?


(A) Body of the pancreas
(B) Isthmus of the pancreas
(C) Main pancreatic duct
(D) Pancreatic acinar cells
(E) Pancreatic islet cells
(F) Tail of the pancreas



As part of the routine physical examination, physicians typically evaluate palatal elevation by asking the patient to “say ah.” The muscles used to perform palatal elevation are derived from which of the following embryologic structures?


(A) Branchial arches 1 and 2
(B) Branchial arches 3 and 4
(C) Branchial arches 4 and 6
(D) Branchial clefts 1 and 2
(E) Branchial pouches 3 and 4
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(C) Main pancreatic duct
(C) Branchial arches 4 and 6
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Old 01-13-2013
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Default C,B?

(C) Main pancreatic duct


B) Branchial arches 3 and 4

Not sure
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Quote:
Originally Posted by billy View Post
The pancreas is derived from two elements of the foregut: the ventral pancreatic bud and the dorsal pancreatic bud. The ventral bud is responsible for part of the head, the uncinate process, and one other structure. Which of the following is the additional structure formed from the ventral pancreatic bud?


(A) Body of the pancreas
(B) Isthmus of the pancreas
(C) Main pancreatic duct
(D) Pancreatic acinar cells
(E) Pancreatic islet cells
(F) Tail of the pancreas



As part of the routine physical examination, physicians typically evaluate palatal elevation by asking the patient to “say ah.” The muscles used to perform palatal elevation are derived from which of the following embryologic structures?


(A) Branchial arches 1 and 2
(B) Branchial arches 3 and 4
(C) Branchial arches 4 and 6
(D) Branchial clefts 1 and 2
(E) Branchial pouches 3 and 4

My answers are in red. Note, when someone says ah, it is cranial nerve 10 that we are testing.
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Old 01-14-2013
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Correct Answer C and B are correct

The correct answer is C. The ventral pancreatic bud also forms the main pancreatic duct in addition to the uncinate process and a part of the head. The dorsal pancreatic duct is responsible for the rest of the structural components
of the pancreas, including the portion of the head not formed by the ventral bud.


The correct answer is B. The muscles that elevate the palate are derived from branchial arch 3 (the stylopharyngeus) and branchial arch 4 (the levator veli palatini). These are innervated by cranial nerves IX and X, respectively.
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The correct answer is C. The ventral pancreatic bud also forms the main pancreatic duct in addition to the uncinate process and a part of the head. The dorsal pancreatic duct is responsible for the rest of the structural components
of the pancreas, including the portion of the head not formed by the ventral bud.


The correct answer is B. The muscles that elevate the palate are derived from branchial arch 3 (the stylopharyngeus) and branchial arch 4 (the levator veli palatini). These are innervated by cranial nerves IX and X, respectively.
was confused about stylopharyngeus action thats why i marked c,anyway thanks
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Originally Posted by billy View Post
The correct answer is C. The ventral pancreatic bud also forms the main pancreatic duct in addition to the uncinate process and a part of the head. The dorsal pancreatic duct is responsible for the rest of the structural components
of the pancreas, including the portion of the head not formed by the ventral bud.


The correct answer is B. The muscles that elevate the palate are derived from branchial arch 3 (the stylopharyngeus) and branchial arch 4 (the levator veli palatini). These are innervated by cranial nerves IX and X, respectively.

Thanks for correction. Then what's branchial arch 4 and 6?
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The first branchial arch generates “M” muscles: muscles of Mastication (teMporalis, Masseter, Medial and lateral pterygoids) and the Mylohyoid. The second arch gives rise to “S” muscles: Stapedius, Stylohyoid, and facial expression muscles. None of these muscles is involved in palatal elevation.


Although branchial arch 4 does give rise to the levator veli palatini, branchial arch 6 gives rise to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx (except the cricothyroid, which is a fourth arch derivative). These muscles are not involved in elevating the palate.

The first branchial cleft gives rise to the external auditory meatus, while the second, third, and fourth clefts are obliterated during development. The clefts are formed from ectoderm and could not give rise to muscles, which are derived from mesoderm.

Branchial pouch 3 gives rise to the thymus (ventral wings) and inferior parathyroid glands (dorsal glands), while the fourth branchial pouch gives rise to the superior parathyroids. These are obviously not involved in palatal elevation. Remember that pouches give rise to endoderm-derived tissue, while the arches give rise to mesoderm-derived tissue such as muscle.
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The first branchial arch generates “M” muscles: muscles of Mastication (teMporalis, Masseter, Medial and lateral pterygoids) and the Mylohyoid. The second arch gives rise to “S” muscles: Stapedius, Stylohyoid, and facial expression muscles. None of these muscles is involved in palatal elevation.


Although branchial arch 4 does give rise to the levator veli palatini, branchial arch 6 gives rise to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx (except the cricothyroid, which is a fourth arch derivative). These muscles are not involved in elevating the palate.

The first branchial cleft gives rise to the external auditory meatus, while the second, third, and fourth clefts are obliterated during development. The clefts are formed from ectoderm and could not give rise to muscles, which are derived from mesoderm.

Branchial pouch 3 gives rise to the thymus (ventral wings) and inferior parathyroid glands (dorsal glands), while the fourth branchial pouch gives rise to the superior parathyroids. These are obviously not involved in palatal elevation. Remember that pouches give rise to endoderm-derived tissue, while the arches give rise to mesoderm-derived tissue such as muscle.

And deficient/failure of 3 and 4 pouches will lead to DiGeorge syndrome. Thanks Billy!!!
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