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Old 10-10-2012
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Arrow Gyrus Daily Questions; Internal Medicine #51

A 72-year-old right-handed male with a history of atrial fibrillation and chronic alcoholism is evaluated for dementia.
His son gives a history of a stepwise decline in the patient’s function over the last 5 years with the accumulation of mild focal neurologic deficits. On examination he is found to have a pseudobulbar affect, mildly increased muscle tone, and brisk deep tendon reflexes in the right upper extremity and an extensor plantar response on the left. The history and ex-amination are most consistent with which of the following?
A. Binswanger’s disease
B. Alzheimer’s disease
C. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
D. Vitamin B 12 deficiency
E. Multi-infarct dementia
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E, Multiinfarct dementia
The clue here is "stepwise" development, which is linked to repetitive micro-infarctions
Another clue is accumulation of several focal neurological defects which depend on the particular area that suffered the infarction.

And the last clue, he is old, alcoholic and with a.fib, probably a lot of emboli have been fired from the heart and have destroyed the brain piece by piece
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E.prolly multi-infarct dementia,
cuz a.fib might shoot some embols to the brain every once in a while.

Can you explain what is Binswanger disease?
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DocSikorski View Post
E.prolly multi-infarct dementia,
cuz a.fib might shoot some embols to the brain every once in a while.

Can you explain what is Binswanger disease?
Is another form of multinfarct dementia but that affects the white matter and subcortical functions, it will have ataxia, seizures and voiding problems as well. It is extremely rare
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May be correct ans is E. Multi-infarct dementia {Hx of AF + slowly progressive dementia + focal neurological deficit }
A. Binswanger’s disease
B. Alzheimer’s disease = no neuro deficit
C. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease = triade of dementia + spasticity + ataxia
D. Vitamin B 12 deficiency= Anemia + SCDC
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Old 10-11-2012
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Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia, is a type of dementia caused by widespread, microscopic areas of damage to the deep layers of white matter in the brain.
forgetfulness (but not as severe as the forgetfulness of Alzheimer's disease),
changes in speech,
an unsteady gait,
clumsiness or frequent falls,
changes in personality or mood (most likely in the form of apathy, irritability, and depression), and
urinary symptoms that aren't caused by urological disease
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Old 10-12-2012
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The answer is E.


All the choices given in the question are causes of
or may be associated with dementia.

Binswanger’s disease, the cause of which is unknown, often occurs in patients with long-standing hypertension and/or atherosclerosis; it is associated with diffuse subcortical white matter damage and has a subacute insidious course.


Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, is also slowly progressive and can be confirmed at autopsy by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a prion disease, is associated with a rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, rigidity, a characteristic EEG pattern, and death within 1 to 2 years of onset.

Vitamin B12 deficiency, which often is seen in the setting of chronic alcoholism, most commonly produces a myelopathy that results in loss of vibration and joint position sense and brisk deep tendon reflexes (dorsal column and lateral corticospinal tract dysfunction).

This combination of pathologic abnormalities in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency is also called subacute combined degeneration. Vitamin B12 deficiency may also lead to a subcortical type of dementia.

Multi-infarct dementia, as in this case, presents with a history of sudden stepwise declines in function associated with the accumulation of bilateral focal neurologic deficits. Brain imaging demonstrates multiple areas of stroke
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Old 10-13-2012
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E. Multi-infarct dementia
The question is from UW.. did this week..
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