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Old 12-23-2012
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Stats Risk factors and Disease Association

A group of researchers at the state university conduct a study investigating the relationship of cigarette smoking and vascular dementia. Retrospective data are obtained from a crosssectional survey on smoking habits and later neurologic symptoms as observed by close relatives. Researchers find that smokers are four times as likely as nonsmokers to suffer from vascular dementia and that they also consume twice as much alcohol as nonsmokers in their study. Which of the following statements could be accurately made on the basis of the available information?

(A) Both alcohol and cigarettes independently increase the risk for vascular dementia
(B) Drinking alcohol increases the risk for vascular dementia
(C) Smoking cigarettes increases the risk for vascular dementia
(D) Smoking increases the risk for vascular dementia, but alcohol has no effect on the risk
(E) Smokers are more likely to drink than nonsmokers
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Old 12-23-2012
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Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
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(E) Smokers are more likely to drink than nonsmokers
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E smokers are more liekly to drink as non smokers
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answer is E...........
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Old 12-25-2012
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Also all of you understand the Q except me
The correct answer is E. Without controlling for the difference in alcohol consumption between smokers and nonsmokers, it is difficult to know which is responsible for the observed difference in vascular dementia incidence. What can be definitively stated is that, among the study population, smokers are more likely to be drinkers than nonsmokers.

Answer A is incorrect. Smoking and alcohol have not been evaluated independently in this study.

Answer B is incorrect. Alcohol may be the cause for the increase in vascular dementia, but unless the smoking disparity is controlled for by study design or multivariate analysis, this statement cannot be conclusively made.

Answer C is incorrect. Smoking may be the cause for the increase in vascular dementia, but unless the disparity in alcohol consumption is controlled for by study design or multivariate analysis, this statement cannot be conclusively made.

Answer D is incorrect. Although the observed result may be due to smoking, with no effect from alcohol consumption, this statement cannot be conclusively made. The presence of the confounding variable, in this case, alcohol consumption, precludes a definitive answer as to which variable accounts for the increased incidence of vascular dementia.
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