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Old 02-16-2010
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Star Arlete’s notes for step 3

Also a PDF file is attached below for download

ARLETE’S NOTES FOR STEP 3
1. Gastroparesis (DM) Rx = metoclopramide, erythromycin; symptoms: post-prandial fullness, hypoglycemia, sweating, dizziness, constipation
2. Drugs that lead to hypercalcemia = thiazides, lithium
3. Calcium greater than 12 or symptoms = NSS IV 3-6 l in 24 h, furosemide if necessary
4. Hungry bones syndrome = hypocalcemia post op removal of parathyroid adenoma
5. Sarcoidosis = increase in vit D levels
6. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia = low 24 h urine calcium
7. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto) = antimicrosomal antibodies
8. Drugs that lead to hypothyroidism = lithium, ASA
9. Large nodule (cold) in multinodular goiter (hot) = FNA; if follicular elements = excision
10. Psammoma bodies = papillary carcinoma of thyroid = MC type of thyroid cancer, RF radiation exposure, lymphatic spread
11. Thyroid cancer types = papillary, follicular (hematogenic spread), anaplastic, medullary (MEN); painful, low uptake, increased ESR
12. Graves disease Rx = bring the patient to euthyroid state, then: radioactive iodine, steroids for ophtalmopathy
13. Plummer disease = long-standing multinodular goiters that become thyrotoxic later
14. Thyroiditis = low 24 h radioactive iodine uptake
15. Graves disease Dx = increased thyroid, "hot", proptosis, positive TSH Ig
16. Nitroblue tetrazolium test = chronic granulomatous disease; tests phagocyte function, oxidative burst
17. Cellular deficiency disease = fatal infections after receiving live viral vaccines (MMR, varicella)
18. Ab deficiency disease = encapsulated organisms, sino=pulmonary bacterial infections, sepsis
19. Phagocytic deficiency disease = recurrent abscesses, lymphadenitis, periodontal infections, Gram negatives, catalase positives, e.g. CGD,
Chédiak-Higashi
20. Complement deficiency dis = C2-C4: autoimmune dis; terminal: Neisseria; C3: encapsulated, unusual strains
21. Severe combined immunodeficiency = first year of life, decrease in T and B cells
22. Ig A deficiency = MC primary immune deficiency, major anaphylatic reaction to blood products
23. X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia Rx = IV Ig; defect in tyrosine kinase
24. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease = catastrophic after EBV infection
25. Chronic granulomatous disease = decreased intracellular and fungal killing; S. aureus, Aspergillus; Rx: prophylatic antibiotics (TMP/SMX, doxycycline), interferon gamma; vaccinate: Haemophilus, Pneumoccocus, Neisseria, viral vaccines
26. T-cell deficiency Rx = bone marrow transplant
27. Transfusion in cellular deficient patient = irradiated, leukodepleted, virus free product
28. C3 deficiency = increased number of pyogenic infections
29. Properidin and C5 deficiency = increased Neisseria infections
30. C1 inhibitor deficiency = hereditary angioedema
31. Decay accelerating factor deficiency = paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
32. Clomiphene citrate use = ovulation induction (for patients with good estrogen production, such as in OPCD)
33. Pregnancy = increase in alkaline phosphatase does not indicate disease necessarily, may be normal finding
34. Primary hypothyroidism = may lead to increase in pituitary, amenorrhea, galactorrhea
35. Meconium ileus suspicion = barium enema
36. Cystic fibrosis tests = sweat test, nasal potential testing
37. Hepatitis B mother = breastfeed is OK!
38. Graves in pregnancy Rx = propylthiouracil
39. Cocaine use in pregnancy = placental abruption
40. Clue cells = bacterial vaginosis; Rx = metronidazole - counsel not to drink alcohol because of disulfiram-like reaction
41. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy = third trimester
42. RF for ectopic pregnancy = age, PID, salpingitis, more than 3 pregnancies
43. Testicular feminization = dysfunction or absence of testosterone receptors; patient is XY, normal breast development, scant pubic and axilar hair,
blind vagina, undescendent testicles, may be felt on the groin.
44. fever greater than 38 C in less than 4 m.o. = admission, IV antibiotics, full evaluation, multiple cultures
45. Pyloric stenosis = non-bilious emesis, midepigastric olive: Dx = USG; RF = erythromycin use
46. MCC of jaundice in pregnancy = viral hepatitis
47. Symptomatic biliary stones = pregnancy Rx = laparoscopic cholecystectomy
48. Asymptomatic biliary stones Rx = none
49. N. gonorrhea = Gram negative diplococci; Rx = ceftriaxone + azithromycin (to cover Chlamydia, which generally is there too); notify publc health authorities
50. Trichomonas vaginalis = motile flagellated microorganisms in vaginal wet mount
51. Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervix) = CIN I; Rx = rescreen in 4-6 months
52. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in woman older than
35 yo next step = office endometrial pipelle biopsy
53. Small subchorionic henorrhage Rx = clinical and USG observation
54. Menorrhagais, anovulatory bleeding = order a TSH!
55. Group B strep prophylaxis = penicillin or ampicillin to mother during active labor, CBC and blood culture on the newborn
56. Low plasma bicarbonate causes = diarthea, renal tubular acidosis
57. Erythema infectiosum = not contagiuos during the rash (slapped face, lacy), only before it
58. Bleeding in pregnancy = order bood type, Rh, atypical antibodies
59. Bilious vomiting in infant = think malrotation with volvulus; if no peritoneal signs, flexible sigmoidoscopy is diagnostic and treatment at the same time
60. Bilious vomiting in newborn = remember the 3 Ds: duodenal atresia, double bubble on abd XR, greater incidence in Down's syndrome
61. Side effects of MgSo4 use for the NB: meconium plug syndrome; in this case, contrast enema is both diagnostic and curative
62. Polythelia = accessory nipple
63. Polymastia = extraglandular breast tissue
64. Hugh grade intraepithelial lesion (cervix) management = colposcopy + endocervical curetage + biopsy
65. Following a molar pregnancy = contraceptives for 1 year, monitor beta HCG, if it goes up, it could be choriocarcinoma
66. Fetal alcohol syndrome = cardiac malformation (VSD), CNS abnormalities, face deformities
67. Tuboovarian abscess Rx = IV atbtcs; surgery only if necessary - it's one of the few cases of abscess that are cured without incision!
68. Prostate cancer Dx = USG guided needle biopsy with 6-12 specimens
69. Metastatic prostate cancer Rx = GnRh agonists (flutamide), orchiectomy + chemo
70. Staging for testicular cancer = serum LDH, AFP, beta HCG, CT chest/abd/pelvis; Rx = radical inguinal orchiectomy + spermatic cord ligation
71. MC sites of melanoma = trunk for men, legs for women
72. Basophilic palisiding cells, pearl appearance, upper 1/3 of the face = basal cell ca (the MC skin ca)
73. Moh's micrographic surgery = for squamous cell ca (lower 1/3 of the face), makes 1-2 mm margins
74. MCC of encephalitis in adults = HSV; meningeal signs + focal neurological signs, temporal lobe changes on CT; Rx = IV Acyclovir 14-21 days
75. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis Rx = ampicillin; NB, elderly
76. Chronic sinusitis = longer than 3 months; clinical Dx, but if something is going to be ordered = CT sinus; Rx = amoxicillin +/- clavulanate +/-
clindamycin for 21 days, nasal steroid sprays, endoscopic surgery if necessary
77. Otitis media, ac. sinusitis Rx = TMP/SMX or amoxicillin +/- clavulanate
78. Otitis externa Rx = topical ofloxacin with steroids; remember to clean the ear before applying the Rx; Pseudomonas, swimmers
79. Chr carriers of group A strep Rx = clindamycin
80. Smoker with pneumonia, diarrhea, increased LDH = think Legionella; Dx = urine Ag; Rx = doxycycline
81. Cystic fibrosis pneumonia Rx = IV ceftazidime + IV levofloxacine = IV aminoglycoside; MCC = Pseudomonas
82. Aspiration pneumonia Rx = IV ceftriaxone + IV azythromycin + IV clindamycin; chronic, not presentiated, RF positive
83. Aspiration pneumonitis = acute event, presentiated by somebody, no need for atbtcs
84. PCP pneumonia Dx = silver stain of sputum, bronchial lavage; Rx = IV TMP/SMX or inhaled pentamidine, add prednisone if: PaO2 less than 70 or
A-a gradient more than 35
85. TB Rx = RIPE for 8 w., then INH + rifampin for 16 w. more
86. Add vit. B6 for INH
87. Keep an eye on uric acid for Pyrazinamide
88. Order ophtalmologic avaliation for Ethambutol
89. Latent TB Rx = nine months of INH (+ B6)
90. TB + HIV = use Rifabutin instead of Rifampin because of possible drug interaction
91. Ac. prostatitis Rx = TMP/SMX or fluoroquinolone for 14 d
92. Chr prostatitis Rx = fluoroquinolone 1 m. or TMP/SMX 3 m.
93. Primary/secondary syphilis Rx = Penicillin G 2.4 million U IM; if disease present for more than 1 year = three doses with 1 w. intervals; notify health
department
94. Neurosyphilis Rx = Penicillin G IV for 14 days
95. DM Dx = random glucose test >200 + symptoms OR twice fasting glucose > 126 OR 75 GTT > 200 at 2 h. OR 50 g GTT > 146 at 2 h
96. Annual influenza vaccine = patients older than
50 yo, healthcare workers
97. OCPs = decrease risk for gonococcal PID
98. Osteoporosis Rx with drugs, not only calcium is indicated when = T-score < 1.5 OR < 2.5 + RF
99. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) T-score = compared to young adults
100. DEXA z-score = compared to age and race matched population
101. Elderly + fall = do a home safety evaluation, avoid narcotics
102. Woman sexually active, younger than 25 yo or with RF = screen for Chlamydia
103. HTN Dx = 3 separate readings with increased BP
104. Post exposure TB prophylaxis = 2 drugs chosen according to bug susceptibility
105. Smallpox Rx = Cidofovir
106. Anthrax Rx and prophylaxis = ciprofloxacin (adults), penicillin (children)
107. Household with children = water heater < 120-130 F
108. Pneumococcal vaccine = q5 y for >50 yo with chr disease
109. Td vaccine = q10 y or once at age 50 yo
110. woman with relative with breast ca = mammogram 10 y before the affected person age + self breast examination
111. Men with relative with prostate cancer = annual PSA + DRE after 40 yo
112. Bipolar I = Hx of mania; major depression + or -
113. Bipolar II = Hx of hypomania + major depression; NO mania
114. Autism suspicion = order a hearing test before saying it is!
115. Gingko biloba + warfarin = increased risk of bleeding
116. 1 yo vaccines = Hib, MMR, varicella, PCV
117. Adopted foreign child = serology hep B, C, HIV, syphilis, PPD, stool tests
118. HIV + CD4 , 200 = TMP/SMX prophylatic for PCP pneumonia
119. Pediculosis, scabies Rx = permethrin lotion; in scabies: treat all household members
120. Necrotizing infection + DM Rx = X-ray, OR for debridement, amputation if needed
121. Infection in CRF + indwelling catheter Rx = vancomycin + gentamycin
122. Tinea versicolor Rx = topical ketoconazole
123. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome = adrenal infarction after/during meningococcal meningits, decreased cortisol level
124. Postherpetic neuralgia Rx = amitriptiline
125. Mononucleosis = leukopenia with atypical lymphocytes, heterophile Abs
126. Bacteremia in a baby Rx = ampicillin + cefotaxime; covering group B strep, Listeria, E. coli
127. Hep. B window period = surface Ag and Ab negative (they cancel each other), Dx may be made through core Ag IgM Ab +
128. Rat bite fever Rx = penicillin G or tetracycline
129. HUS = ac. renal failure + anemia + thrombocytopenia; E. coli 0157:H7, raw meat
130. Tinea pedis Rx = topical antifungal for 2-3 w, if not gone = oral griseofulvin 6-8 w
131. Invasive aspergillosis = multiple bilateral lung nodules with surrounding hemorrhages
132. Post chemo fever Rx = hospitalize, broad spectrum atbtcs, antifungal if no response
133. HPV infection Dx when lesions not apparent = apply vinegar to the region
134. Cat scratch disease Dx = lymph node biopsy; treat only if = bact superinfection (S. aureus), encephalitis
135. Ac. post-infectious cerebellar ataxia = post varicella infection or vaccine; differential = poisoning
136. Fever + neutropenia Rx = antipseudomonal third generation cephalosporin OR antipseudomonal penicillin + aminoglycoside
137. First generation cephalosporin = cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefalotin, cefazolin
138. Second generation = cefaclor, cefuroxime; antianaerobe: cefotetan, cefoxitin
139. Thrid generation = cefixime, cefotaxime; antipseudomonal: cefoperazone, ceftazidime
140. Herpes zoster Rx = acyclovir 141. Crush injuries Rx = copious alkalinized IV crystaloid (for renal protection)
142. Exertional heat stroke = may lead to DIC and rhabdomyolysis; Rx = ice water, cold wet sheets + fan
143. Ecstasy intoxication = may lead to rhabdomyolisis
144. Ac. ethanol withdrawal Rx = chlordiazepoxide
145. Edrophonium = acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
146. Organophosphate poisoning Rx = atropine, pralidomide
147. Ac. tubular necrosis due to contrast prophylaxis = hidration, acetylcysteine
148. Avoid/suspend metformin use before tests with IV contrast (for renal protection)
149. Opioid intoxication = miosis, resp. depression, coma, hypotension, bradycardia; Rx = naloxone
150. Severe dehydration in elderly = may lead to ac. suppurative parotitis by S. aureus; Rx = IV hidration, sialogogues, atbtcs; surgical drainage if not better in 12 h
151. Intoxicated patient = impossible to clear cervical spine because you need to have patient communicating symptoms to do it
152. Priapism causes = TPN, sickle cell disease, crack/cocaine, trauma, spinal or general anesthesia, trazodone, leukemia
153. Alcohol withdrawal = happens in hours to 10 days
154. Urinary retention causes = BPH, prostate ca, prostatitis, urethral stricture, meds, blood clots
155. Cyanide toxicity (nitroprusside) Rx = sodium thiosulfate
156. Gallbladder rupture suspicion = exploratory laparotomy
157. Compartment syndrome signs = most sensitive is loss of DTRs, most ominous is loss of pulse; 6 Ps = pallor, pain, paralysis, paresthesia, pulselessness, poikilothermia
158. Hyperkalemia + EKG changes Rx = calcium gluconate
159. Motor vehicle accident with seat belt in place = may cause pancreatic fracture = order a CT scan with IV contrast
160. Carboxy hemoglobin level > 40% (>15% in pregnancy) Rx = hyperbaric O2 therapy
161. Methylene chloride (paint remover) intox. = carbon monoxide poisoning; use co-oxymeter
162. Methemoglobinemia Rx = Methylene blue
163. IV epinephrine = Rx of pulseless VT or VF (post eletric cardioversion try), not for hypovolemia
164. PCP intoxication = aggression, ac. psychosis, ataxia, violence, nystagmus, suicide, fever, hypersalivation, hyperacusis
165. QRS amplitude alternance = cardiac tamponade
166. ERCP complications = ac. pancreatitis, infected pancreatic pseudocyst formation, cholangitis, perforation
167. Disrupted/transected urethra suspicion next step = retrograde urethrogram; blood at meatus + high riding prostate
168. Leaking CSF (ears) = cribiform fracture = blind nasogastric or nasal intubations are contraindicated!
169. Femoral canal = NAVEL from lat. to medial
170. Radial head fracture (outstretched hand, Cole's fracture) Rx = sling 2-3 days, early exercises
171. Wound dehiscence = new onset serous discharge
172. CXR in pneumothorax = at maximal expiration
173. Compartment syndrome suspicion = measure compartment pressures, emergent fasciotomy if confirmed
174. In burn patients, succinylcholine use is contraindicated due to the risk of hyperkalemia
175. Thioridazine S. E. = prolonged QT
176. Diuretic for sulfa alergic patients = etacrinic acid
177. Anabolic steroids S. E. testicular atrophy, liver disease, gynecomastia, impotence
178. Concussion = head trauma + transient LOC + short amnesia, may have not serious late symptoms up to 6 m. later
179. Increased ICP first steps in management = intubation + hyperventilation
180. Lumbar puncture headache = positional, within 24 h.
181. Anterior spinal arterial occlusion = decreased motor function, decreased sensation, decreased pinprick, preserved proprioception
182. AST = less specific for liver than ALT; increased in alcoholic liver injury
183. Ketorolac = NSAID, IV, used in testicular torsion; S.E. = gastric ulceration, GI bleeding
184. Human bite Rx = ampicillin-sulbactam OR TMP/SMX + clindamycin; if HIV involved = don't worry, it doesn't get transmitted by bite (yet!)
185. Methanol toxicity = vision changes; order: ABG, electrolytes, osmolality; Rx = IV ethanol, dyalisis
186. Amytriptiline S.E. = constipation, ac. glaucoma, urinary retention, dry mouth, paralytic ileus; but the worst event in intoxication = cardiac arrhythmias
187. Electromyography = checks nerve and muscle integrity
188. Evoked potential studies = monitor transmission of motor impulses in the anterior columns of spinal cord
189. JC virus + HIV Rx = HAART
190. JC virus causes = progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
191. Epididimoorchitis Rx = Doxycycline 100 mg PO bid for 10 d + ceftriaxone 250 mg IM
192. HTN + BPH Rx = terazosin, doxazosin
193. Increase in AFP = embryonal, yolk sac elements (nonseminomas)
194. Increase in HCG = seminomas and nonseminomas
195. Hydrocele = Dx with USG, no Rx required
196. Metastatic prostate ca Rx = leuprolide, goserelin OR bilateral orchiectomy
197. Priapism etiology = idiopathic (60%), leukemia, sickle cell dis, pelvic tu and infections
198. PSA > 4 next step = prostate biopsy
199. Chancroid = Haemophilus ducreyi, painful, unilateral lymphadenopathy, lesion with purulent base; Rx = ceftriaxone, azithromycin
200. Granuloma inguinale = C. granulomatis, painless, beefy-red lesion; Rx = TMP/SMX
201. Lymphogranuloma venereum = Chlamydia trachomatis, herpetiform vesicle with erosion, bilateral suppurative lymphadenopathy; Rx = doxycycline
202. Syphillis = Treponema pallidum, painless papula with clear, clean base, nontender, nonsuppurative lymphademopathy; Dx = RPR, VDRL, dark field mycroscopy; Rx = penicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin; notify health authorities
203. Hematospermia with normal PE and labs = observation and reassurance
204. Tertiary syphilis = not contagious
205. HAART indications = symptomatic HIV, CD4 < 200, pregnancy
206. CD4 < 200 = PCP prophylaxis = TMP/SMX, dapsone or atovaquone
207. CD4 < 50 = MAI prophylaxis = azithromycin weekly
208. Toxo Ig G + and CD4 < 100 = TMP/SMX OR dapsone + pyrimethamine + leucovorin
209. TB contact OR PPD > 5 mm + HIV = INH + vit B6 for 9 m.
210. HIV Dx = vaccines to be given = pneumococcal q 5 y., influenza q 1 y., hepatitis B
211. Mefloquine S.E. = bradycardia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, prolonged QT
212. NB of woman with SLE may have = congenital CHB
213. Chronic fatigue syndrome = fatigue + cognitive changes for 1 y. or more; infectious basis: virus, Chlamydia pneumoniae
214. Fibromyalgia = pain, tender points (11 of 18), sleep changes, psychological distress, allodynia, more than 3 m., realated to SLE, RA
215. Allodynia = even gentle touch is unpleasant
216. Avascular necrosis of femoral head causes = pancreatitis, alcoholism, fat embolus, sickle cell anemia, air emboli, steroids; Dx = MRI, SPECT
217. Idiopathic AVN = Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
218. AVN Rx = avoidance of activity, taper steroid
219. Pyogenic granuloma Rx = shave, electrodesiccate base, send it to pathology evaluation
220. Amelanotic melanoma = It can resemble pyogenic granuloma clinically
221. Temporomandibular joint disease = orofacial pain, noisy joint, restricted jaw function; Dx = MRI
222. Complication of hand/wrist trauma = AVN of scaphoid (navicular) bone
223. Osler-Weber-Wendu = hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia = epistaxis, GI bleeding, polycystic kydneys
224. Von-Hippel-Lindau dis.= cavernous hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas in CNS, retina, renal cell ca
225. Sturge Weber syndrome = facial port wine stain, seizure, ocular changes
226. Caplan syndrome = rheumatoid nodules in the lungs
227. Felty syndrome = splenomegaly + neutropenia in severe R.A.
228. Tuberous sclerosis = ash leaf macules (hypopigmented), calcified intracranial nodules, epilepsy, low inteligence, adenoma sebaceum
229. Leser-Trelat sign = multiple pruritic seborrheic keratosis associated with internal malignancy
230. Polymyalgia rheumatica = very high ESR; Rx = low dose corticoids; keep an eye open for possible temporal arteritis
231. Vitiligo Rx = topical sterois, phototherapy 232. Porphyria cutanea tarda = blistering in a sun exposed area + milia; Dx = urine prophirin level +
hepatitis panel
233. Dermatitis herpetiformis = chr. pruritic papulovesicular lesions on extensor surfaces, post. hairline; Rx = dapsone
234. Pemphigus vulgaris Rx = immediate high dose corticosteroids
235. Hypertensive urgency = the goal is to decrease the diastolic BP to about 100-105 mmHg within a period of 2-6 hours
236. Avoid nitroprusside infusion for more than 48 h (it may lead to cyanide toxicity)
237. Hypert. urg. in pregnancy Rx = hydralazine, labetalol
238. In pheochromocytoma, serotonin syndrome, cocaine use = IV phentolamine
239. In aortic dissection = nitroprusside + labetalol/metoprolol
240. Joint replacement in osteoarthritis indications = refractory pain, functional limit, inability for ADLs
241. Alendronate (Fosamax) S.E. = esophageal irritation, ulceration and it has to be taken with an empty stomach, so always counsel the patient to take
it in the morning and sit or stand upright for 30 minutes
242. Achantosis nigricans = DM, hypothyroidism, Cushing's, Addison's, malignancy
243. Kaposi's sarcoma = vascular tu, purplish lesions, extravasation of erythrocytes
244. MCC of alergic contact dermatitis = nickel
245. Methotrexate, azathioprine, chloroquine, etanercept, infliximab = disease modifying antirheumatic drugs
246. Lumbar stenosis = pseudoclaudication, worse with hyperextending movements, better with leaning forward, normal ankle-brachial index; Dx = MRI of the lumbar spine
247. Knee ligament injury Dx = MRI
248. PNH = GPI anchor prot defic. = hemolytic anemia + pancytopenia + venous thrombosis (e.g. hepatic)
249. PNH Dx = flow cytometry, HAM test
250. PNH labs = increased LDH, reticulocyte, decreased or negative haptoglobin, hemosiderinuria, hemoglobinuria
251. PNH Rx = iron, folic acid, transfusion, corticoids, eculizumab
252. Erythema nodosum Rx = NSAIDs
253. Back pain MRI indications = spinal stenosis, osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, post trauma
254. Down syndrome = should NOt participate in contact sports
255. Fracture on landing on feet = calcaneum, spine, acetabulum, post. hip dislocation
256. Melanoma suspicion = excisional biopsy
257. Osgood-Schlatter dis. = apophysitis of tibial tuberosity; Rx = decrease physical activity
258. Rotator cuff tear = weakness, instability; Dx = MRI; Rx = arthroscopic repair
259. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis = Dx = X-ray; Rx = fixation of epiphysis with long screws
260. Iliotibial band syndr. = pain in lat. aspect of knee
261. Axillary adenopathy in woman = mammography
262. Supraclavicular lymph node = lymph node biopsy
263. Miliaria = heat rash
264. Erythema multiforme minor = bull's-eye on palms, herpes simplex; Rx = long-term use acyclovir
265. Pustular psoriasis = sterile, post steroids, fever, malaise, arthralgia, diarrhea; Rx = cyclosporine
266. Seborrheic keratitis = "stuck=on", waxy grease scale
267. Dermatomyositis = often is paraneoplasic
268. Hypercalciuria (renal stones) Rx = hctz orally
269. Dye S.E. = ac. tubular necrosis = muddy granular casts
270. ATN = BUN/Cr < 20:1; cisplatin is one of the causes
271. Ac. interstitial nephritis (drugs) = rash, fever, hematuria, white cell casts, eosinophiluria
272. Increase in eosinophils = tumors, parasitic infectious, autoimmune diseases
273. Renal calculi = Abd XR, if - = CT scan of abdomen (shows all types of stones) -
actually this information is conflicting between some sources, so one should do some research about it
274. Indinavir (HIV drug) S.E. = renal stone
275. Struvite stones = Mg ammonium phosphate, pH>7.2, presence of urea splitting bugs (Proteus, Pseudommonas, Klebsiella; Rx = removal
276. Uric acid stones = radiotranslucent
277. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in non-pregnant, healthy patient = no Rx is indicated
278. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) S.E. = cardiac toxicity, myelosuppression
279. Vincristine S.E. = motor, sensory and autonomic neuropathy
280. Bleomycin S.E. = pulmonary fibrosis
281. Myelosuppressant drugs = methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin
282. Polycystic kidney dis = colonic diverticular dis (with increased risk for perfuration), it may evolute to end stage renal dis, 10-15% of the patients have intracranial aneurysm
283. Chrug-Strauss dis = nephritic syndr + eosinophilia + asthma, p-anca +; Rx = steroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine
284. Goodpasture syndr = nephritic syndr + pulmonary hemorrhage; Abs to glomerular basement membrane
285. Wegener granulomatosis = nephritis + nasal/sinus problems, c-anca +; Rx = same as Chrug- Strauss
286. Berger's syndr = IgA nephropathy, no latent period post infection, nephrotic syndr
287. DMSA renal scan = radionucleotide study for renal function
288. IV pyelogram = C.I. in renal insufficiency
289. Kegel exercises = benefits within 6 weeks
290. Dribbling + dyspareunia + dysuria in woman = urethral diverticulum; Dx = urethroscopy or voiding cystourethrography
291. Nephrotic syndr = increased susceptibility to bact. infections, hyperlipidemia, mildly hypercoagulable state, hypovolemia
292. Renal cell ca suspicion = radical nephrectomy; Bx only for metastatic cases (when Sx is not indicated)
292. Rapidly progressive GN Rx = high dose IV methylprednisolone
293. Alport syndr = hematuria +/- blindness +/- deafness; type IV collagen of GMB in abnormal
294. Membranous glomerulonephropathy = MCC of nephrotic syndr in adults; Rx = ACEi
295. Membranoprolipherative GN = nephrotic sundr; renal dis + decreased complement, realted to hepatitis C virus
296. Painless hematuria = CT urogram or IVP (check ureteres)
297. Pyelonephritis suspicion = blood + urine cultures, urinalysis
298. Immunotherapy = for asthmatics patients with a single allergen
299. Interstitial fibrosis = decerased FVC, FEV1,
RV, TLC, diffusion; increased FEV1/FVC; no response to bronchodilator
300. Immunisuppressed pat + pulm. aspergilosis Rx = IV amphotericin B
301. Primary pulm. HTN Rx = inhaled nitrous oxide, Calcium channel blockers
302. ARDS Rx = limit tidal volume to 6 cc/kg or less
303. Lung nodule on X-ray = thorax CT scan with contrast
304. Appropriate tube placement = colorimetric detection of end-tidal carbon dioxide
305. Sarcoidosis Dx = skin, transbronchial lung biopsy
306. To decrease aspiration risk during entubation = cricoid pressure
307. After pulm HTN Dx = vasodilator response testing
308. Albuterol usage > twice a week = add triamcinolone MDI
309. Ipratropium bromide = takes about 45 minutes to make effect
310. Non-massive hemoptysis = CXR, then bronchoscopy, then high resolution CT scan to Dx; not all tests necessary every time, though
311. Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis) = subglotic swelling, steeple sign on XR, parainfluenza, barking cough; Rx = mist tent, racemic epinephrine, IV
corticosteroid, diphenhydramine 312. TB confirmatory Dx test = sputum acid-fast stain
313. Ciprofloxacin = does NOT cover streptococcus
314. Community acquired pneumonia Rx = azithromycin, levofloxacin
315. Sup. vena cava syndr due to ca Rx = radiation therapy
316. Penicillin alergy = cephalosporin use is OK if penicillin skin test is -
317. Heparin = given with warfarin untill 2 days after INR reaches desired level
318. Foreign body aspiration in children = rigid bronchoscopy, methylprednisolone, cefazolin
319. Gout Rx = for overproducers = allopurinol; for underexcreters = probenecid
320. Cauda equina syndr. suspicion = MRI; it's an emergency!
321. Gian cell arteritis Rx = Prednisone 40-60 md daily for 1-2 m., then taper down; if there is suspicion, treat immediately, even before biopsy, to
avoid blindness as a complication!
322. Fight bite bug: Eikenella
323. Thompson test = pressure on gastrocnemius does not cause foot flexion, + in Achilles tendon rupture
324. Fibromyalgia symptoms with less than 11 trigger points = myofascial pain syndr.
325. Gottron's paules = happen in dermatomyositis
326. Polymyosistis Dx = increased creatinine, aldolase, CPK; EMG; muscle Bx; Rx = high dose corticosteroids
327. Urobilinogen = increased in hemolysis, hepatocelular dis.; decreased in biliary obstruction
328. Lithium S.E. = nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism
329. Symptomatic hyponatremia Rx = 3% hypertonic saline to increase PNa by 3-5 mEq in 6 h, but no more than 12 mEq per day, because of the risk of central pontine myelinolisis
330. Central pontine myelinolisis = flacid paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia
331. Osmotic diuresis = Uosm/Posm>0.7
332. Diabetes insipidus = Uosm/Posm<0.7
333. Hypernatremia Rx = correct < 12 mEq/d to prevent cerebral swelling
334. Symptomatic hypercalcemia or > 13.5 Rx = hydration + furosemide, then biphosphonate or calcitonin; hemodyalisis if necessary
335. Hypercalcemia has no specific signs and symptoms, only hypocalcemia has them (Chvostek, carpal pedal spasm)!
336. Intraductal papilloma = bloody nipple discharge
337. Duct ectasia = fever, greenish cheesy discharge, pain, tenderness
338. Breast ca = single, hard, immobile, irregular borders, >2cm
339. Triple Dx = PE + mammogram + FNA citology/Bx
340. Around 15% of breast cancers have a false negative mammogram
341. Breast lump in woman younger than 35 yo = if cystic = FNA = if nonbloody liquid = reassurance, if bloody = citology; if not = US and core Bx or
excisional biopsy
342. MC sequelae of meningitis = hearing loss; rememeber to order audiometry in ccs once the meningitis is cured
343. Meningococcal meningitis prophylaxis = rifanpim or cipro for close contacts
344. Measles = high fever for 3 days, then Koplik, then 1 day after head-to-toe rash; pneumonia; O.M.; encephalitis (ac.), subac. sclerosing panencephalitis (even after years)
345. Roseola infantum (exanthema subitum) = high fever for 4 days, stop, then rash on trunk; human herpes virus 6
346. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) = slapped cheek rash; parvovirus B19; when the rash is there, it's not contagious anymore
347. Varicella Ig = for immunodebilitated, NB, within 4 days of exposure
348. Scarlet fever = sand paper rash, circumoral pallor, strawberry tongue; Rx = penicillin to prevent RF
349. Kawasaki syndr Rx = aspirin + IV Ig; f/u with echo
350. Rocky mountain spotted fever Rx = tetracycline + chloranfenicol OR doxycycline; it may cause DIC, delirium
351. Epiglottitis Rx = entubate ot tracheostomy, third generation cephalosporin; "thumb sign" on XR, child 2-5 yo, H. influenzae, S. aureus
352. RSV/bronchiolitis Rx = O2, mist tent, bronchodilators, IV fluids, ribavirin if severe, child <18 mo
353. Diphteria = grayish pseudomembranous + myocarditis; Rx = atbtc + antitoxin
354. Pertussis = paroxysmal coughing + whooping inspiratory noise; Rx = atbtc
355. Post-streptococcal GN = NOT prevented by atbtc
356. Congenital toxoplasmosis = IC calcifications, chorioretinitis
357. Congenital varicella-zoster = limb hypoplasia, scarring of the skin
358. Congenital CMV = deafness, cerebral calcifications, microphtalmia
359. Conjunctivitis in the first day of life = chemical reaction
360. Gonorrhea conjunctivitis Rx = erythromycin ointment for 2-5 days
361. Chlamydial conjunctivitis Rx = topical + oral erythromycin for 5-14 days; the intention is to avoid that it becomes a Chlamydial pneumonia
362. NB cataracts = TORCH, inherited metabolic dis (e.g. galactosemia)
363. Orbital cellulitis = ophtalmoplegia, ptosis, severe pain, decreased acuity, it's an emergency!; Rx = blood culture, inpatient IV atbtc
364. Uveitis in juvenile RA = Dx = slit-lamp exam; Rx = steroid drops
365. Orchiopexy = correction of cryptorchidism after 1 yo; does NOT affect risk of testicular ca, wich is increased in these cases
366. PDA = congenital rubella, high altitudes
367. T4F = VSD + RV hypertrophy + pulm. stenosis + overriding Ao
368. "Tet" spells = squatting after exertion; increases venous return and peripheric resistance, keeping more blood in lungs and improving oxygenation;
very common in T4F, although not patognomonic
369. Coarctation of Ao = Turner syndr; mid upper back systolic murmur, BP difference between arms and legs
370. VSD = MC congenital cardiac defect; muscular type is the one that has the greater cahnce of closing by itself before 2 yo, but rarely after 4 yo; fetal
alcohol syndr, TORCH, Down syndr
371. Necrotizing enterocolitis = premature, fever, rectal bleeding, air in bowel wall; Rx = NPO, gastric tube, IV fluids, atbtcs
372. Cystic fibrosis = meconium ileus, rectal prolapse
373. Kernicterus = increased unconjugated bilirubin, depoists into the basal ganglia, poor feeding, seizures, flaccidity, opisthotonus, apnea
374. Breast milk jaundice = peak at 2-3 w; Rx = temporary bottle feeding
375. Increased unconjugated bilirubin = Criggler- Najar dis., Gilbert dis.
376. Increased conjugated bilirubin = Rotor, Dubin-Johnson dis.
377. Sulfa in neonates = displace bilirubin from albumin, leads to kernicterus
378. Exchange transfusion = unconjugated bilirubin >20 mg/dl + failed phototherapy
379. MC primary immunodeficiency = Ig A deficiency: respiratory and GI infections; avoid giving Ig (anti IgA antibodies)
380. Bruton agammaglobulinemia = 6 mo, lung + sinus infections; Streptococcus, Haemophilus
381. Wiskott-Aldrich defic. + boy, eczema + thrombocytopenia + resp. infections
382. Chediak-Higashi syndr. = giant granules in neutrophils + oculocutaneous albinism
383. Complement defic. (C5-9) = recurrent Neisserial infections
384. Chr. mucocutaneous candidiasis = often associated with hypothyroidism
385. Osteosarcoma = 10-20 yo, about the knee, "sunburst" on X-ray
386. Job-Buckley syndr = intense increase in IgE, recurrent Staph infections; fair skin, red hair, eczema
387. Unicameral bone cyst = expansile, lytic, prox. portion of humerus
388. Bitot spots(debris in conjunctiva) = vit A deficiency
389. Vit A toxicity = pseudotu cerebri, bone thickening, teratogenicity
390. Vit. E defic. = anemia, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia
391. Give vit. A for = patients with measles
392. Give vit. E for = Alzheimer's patients
393. Give vit C for = iron deficiency anemia (increases absorption of Fe; calcium decreases it)
394. Vit E toxicity = necrotizing enterocolitis in infants
395. Vit K toxicity = hemolysis (kernicterus)
396. Vit. B6 defic. and toxicity both manifest as = peripheral neuropathy
397. Vit. B12 (cobalamin) defic. = megaloblastic anemia + neurologic symptoms
398. Folic acid defic. = megaloblastic anemia
399. Bone pain in vit C defic = periosteal hemorrhages
400. Wernicke/Korsakoff syndr = vit B1 deficiency (thiamine); never give glucose before thiamine for an alcoholic in the ER
401. Manganese toxicity = "manganese madness"in miners of ore
402. Chromium deficiency = impaired glucose tolerance
403. Removal of the ileum, tapeworm Diphylobothrium latum = B12 defic.
404. MCC of vit. B12 defic. = pernicious anemia
405. Pernitious anemia association = vitiligo, hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism
406. Liver failure + increase in PT Rx = fresh frozen plasma
407. Rubella vaccine = NOT for immunocompromised patients (except for HIV), if given to a woman and she gets pregnant in the first three months after, abortion is NOT indicated, chances are nothing bad will happen to the fetus
408. Mean = average value
409. Median = middle value
410. Mode = MC value
411. Brain death with confounding medical dis. = needs additional confirmatory test
412. Tardive dyskinesia Rx = switch anitipsychotic to clozapine
413. Ac. dystonia, parkinsonism as S.E. Rx = diphenhydramine, trihexyphenidyl, benztropine
414. Akathisia Rx = betablockers
415. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, malignant hyperthermia Rx = dantrolene
416. Thioridazine S.E. = retinal pigment deposits
417. Chlorpromazine S.E. = jaundice, photosensitivity
418. P. aeruginosa bacteremia Rx = tobramycin or amikacin + piperacillin OR ceftazidime OR cefepime
419. Ecthyma gangrenosum Rx = IV atbtc (not debridement)
420. Cryptococcal meningitis Dx = + india ink preparation; Rx = amphotericin B + flucytosine 10-14 d, then fluconasole prophylaxis forever (for HIV);
may require repeated lumbar punctures to decrease the pressure
421. Phenytoin toxicity = nystagmus on far lateral gaze, neurotoxicity; remember that it decreases the OCP levels in the blood
422. Catheter-related syst. infection = removal + vancomycin + gentamycin
423. Vertebral osteomyelitis Dx = MRI is the most accurate, bone Bx is the gold standard
424. Meningococcal meningitis prophylaxis = oral rifampin OR S.D. oral ciprofloxacin OR S.D. IM ceftriaxone
425. IV pentamidine S.E. = metabolic disturbances, such as hypoglycemia (always check in case of seizure)
426. Herpes zoster Rx = acyclovir within 48 h of onset of rash
427. Candida ophtalmitis with vitreal involvement Rx = vitrectomy + systemic antifungal
428. Hypothermia or shock post blood transfusion = think hypocalcemia!
429. HIV prophylaxis post exposure = zidovudine + lamivudine for 4 w 430. Lungs + sinuses infections post bone marrow transplant = invasive aspergillosis
431. Rhinocerebral mucormicosis Rx = surgical debridement + IV amphotericin B
432. MCC of FUO = infection (30-40%)
433. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (JC) = multiple focal neuro symptoms in HIV patient
434. Shoulder dystocia Rx = stop pushing, suprapubic pressure, McRobert's maneuver
435. McRobert's maneuver = two assistants flexing thighs back against abd.
436. Zavanelli maneuver = replace fetal head back into the pelvis, but then you have only 7 minutes to perform the c-section
437. ARDS = clear lungs + diffuse bilat. infiltrates on CXR; Rx = PEEP around 9, high O2 concentration, low tidal volume (<6 ml/kg)
438. Neonatal polycythemia Rx = hydration + partial exchange transfusion
439. Mendelson's syndrome = aspiration pneumonitis
440. Ac. tubular necrosis = after prerenal azotemia; muddy brown casts in urinalysis; increased BUN and creatinine, anion gap acidosis
441. Hemosiderin laden macrophages = Wegener's, Goodpasture's
442. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia Rx = suspend it, lepirudin or argatroban; prevention = use low molecular heparin instead, or limit the use to a
maximum of 5 days
443. Ascities fluid analysis = serum-ascitic fluid albumin gradient (SAAG) - if <1.1 g/dl = cirrhosis, CHF; if >1.1 = ca, pancreatitis
444. Ac. compartment syndr. complication = rhabdomyolisis that may lead to ARF; Dx = pressure > 30 mmHg; Rx = emergent fasciotomy
445. Mental status change in the elderly = meds, infection, metabolic, thyroid dis.
446. Metastasis prostate ca Rx = leuprolide (LHRH agonist) + flutamide (antiandrogen)
447. Octreotide = somatostin analog, for bleeding esophageal varices
448. Active lower GI bledding = STAT colonoscopy or radionuclide scan
449. Ac. hemolytic transfusion reaction Rx = stop it and hydrate!
450. Metronidazole = contraindicated for breastfeeding women
451. Postpartum endometritis Rx = clindamycin + gentamicin
452. Infant botulism Rx = supportive care, human derived botulin antitoxin; expect 1-3 m of hospitalization and full recovery
453. Febrile transfusion reaction avoidance = washed cells
454. Pre-angiography = discontinue metformin to avoid renal complications and acidosis
455. Hypocalcemia = hyperactive DTRs
456. Hypermagnesemia = loss of DTRs
457. Condyloma acuminata = vaginal delivery is OK!
458. Transurethral resection of the prostate S.E. = hyponatremia = twitching, seizures
459. Stress ulcer prevention = oral PPI suspension
460. Erb's palsy association = diaphragmatic paralysis
461. Torsades de points with instability = unsynchronized cardioversion, then, IV magnesium sulfate, then temporary transvenous overdrive
pacemaker (in this orden, according to necessity)
462. MCC of CAH = 21-hydrolase enzyme defic. (increased 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone)
463. 11-hydroxilase defic. = HTN, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, due to the increase in 11-deoxycorticosterone, which is a mineralocorticoid
464. Classic dashboard injury (car accident) = post. cruciate ligament lesion
465. Mechanical valves INR goal = 2.5-3.5
466. Cimetidine, trimethoprim S.E. = decrease clearance of creatinine
467. ITP in adults Rx = corticosteroids, then IV Ig, then splenectomy (rarely needed)
468. Hyperhomocysteinemia Rx = folic acid
469. Borderline personality dis. Rx = dialectical behaviour therapy
470. RSV Dx = detection of RSV Ag in nasal/pulm secretions by ELISA
471. Sudden hyperglycemia + total parenteral nutrition = sepsis
472. Hashimoto's thyroiditis association = thyroid lymphoma
473. Chr. recurrent pancreatitis complication = isolated gastric varices
474. Doxorubicin use = serial radionuclide ventriculography or MUGA is used to evaluate cardiotoxicity
475. Hospice care = life expectancy < 6 m
476. DM screening = 45 yo, q3y if no risk factor
477. Chlordiazepoxide = Rx of alcohol withdrawal
478. Ceftriaxone S.E. = increase in both types of bilirubin
479. CIN 1 = repeat pap smear in 6 m
480. Wernicke's encephalopathy = confusion + ataxia + nystagmus (ophtalmoplegia)
481. Korsakoff's psychosis = may happen as a consequence of giving glucose before thiamine; confabulation (creating a story to fill the gap in memory); mamilory bodies changes
482. Multiple sclerosis suspicion = MRI brain and spine; Rx (acutely) = steroids; to prevent relapsing = interferon OR glatiramer (remember they are both
teratogenic); repeat MRI in 3 months
483. Increased bleeding time Rx = IV desmopressin (e.g. renal failure)
484. Isotretinoin, minocycline S.E. = pseudotumor cerebri
485. MC scaphoid fracture complication = nonunion
486. Orthostatic hypotension = decrease by 20 mmHg in syst BP OR 10 mmHg in dyast BP
487. Thiazides, amiodarone, sulfa S.E. = photosensitivity
488. Increase in fibrinogen happens with use of = lovastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin
489. Ac. Ao dissection HTN Rx = IV betablockers + nitroprussiate
490. Dipyridamole, adenosyne = C.I. in asthma or COPD
491. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy = 24-34 w = IM bethametasone, dexamethasone
492. 50 mg oral glucose challenge >140 = do a 100 mg OGTT with 3 h measurement
493. Glucose in pregnancy goals = fasting 60-90, postprandial < 120
494. TMP-SMX = NOT in first and third trimester
495. Pyelonephritis + pregnancy Rx = IV ceftriaxone OR ampicillin + gentamycin
496. Condyloma acuminata in mucosa or pregnancy Rx = trichloroacetic acid
497. Severe PID Rx = IV cefoxitin/ceftriaxone + IV doxycycline
498. Next day pill = levonorgestrel (up to 120 h after)
499. Cystic fibrosis infertility = 95% for men, 20% for women
500. Hyperthyroidism + pregnancy Dx = free T4, total T4, TSH
501. Pap smear screening = 3 y after first intercourse or 18 yo
502. Hypothyroidism in pregnincy = dose of Lthyroxine needs to be increased (increased thyroglobulin)
503. Pessaries (+ vaginal estrogen) = structures to support the vagina walls
504. ASCUS Dx next step = HPV DNA testing, then colposcopy if necessary
505. RA with poor response to methotrexate = infliximab OR etanercept; do a PPD first!
506. PCP intoxication Rx (if patient not extremely agitated) = low-sensory enviroment; haloperidol, diazepam if necessary
507. Metoclopramide S.E. = extrapyramidal symptoms
508. Influenza Rx = zanamivir, rimantadine or amantadine within first 30-48 h of symptoms
509. Sup. vena cava syndr = CT of neck + chest w/ contrast
510. MCC of Guillain-Barre syndr = C. jejunii infection; Rx = IV Ig or plasmapheresis, respiratory support if necessary, keep an eye on the patient, with
bedside pulmonary function tests!
511. Ac. stress disorder = < 4 w post event
512. Post-traumatic stress disorder = > 4w post event, even years
513. Hyperviscosity syndr = Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (increased Ig M), multiple myeloma
514. PE suspicion = V/Q scan, then venous USG, then CT angiogram of the chest (in this order, if necessary)
515. Chlamydia infection + HLA-B27+ = Reiter's syndr; Rx = atbtc, exercise, sulfasalazine, methotrexate
516. Ethylene glycol = severe anion gap acidosis, Kussmaul's respiration
517. Ethylene glycol, methanol intox. Rx = fomepizole infusion (ADH competitive inhibitor)
518. Klinefelter's syndr = risk factor for male breast cancer
519. Doxycycline S.E. = photosensitivity
520. Isotretinoin S.E. = hypertriglyceridemia, may lead to pancreatitis
521. Pulm. contusion Rx = admission for 24-48 h, pulm. toilet, O2, pain control, fluid management
522. Renal cell ca = renal mass + polycythemia + flank pain + smoking
523. Amiodarone S.E. = thyroid dysfunction, corneal deposits, skin discoloration, pulm. fibrosis, liver toxicity
524. Metformin S.E. = metabolic acidosis, weight loss
525. Glyburide = metabolized by kydneys; glitazones = metabolized by liver
526. indirect inguinal hernia Rx = elective repair ASAP
527. TSS Rx = clindamycin +/- naficillin + IV fluids (up to 20 L!)
528. Metformin C.I. = CHF, alcoholism, renal failure
529. Glitazones C.I. = CHF NYHA classes III, IV
530. C. difficile infection is caused by = clindamycin, ampicillin, amoxacillin, cephalosporins
531. After 2 cystitis in 6 months = prophylaxis for 6-12 m
532. Decreased TSH, but normal T3, T4 = repeat TSH after 6-8 w
533. Anorexia nervosa with <75% of ideal weight = hospitalization
534. Early childhood respiratory disease with apnea = RSV bronchiolitis
535. Heat stroke Rx = augmentation of evaporative cooling
536. Isolated increase in alkaline phosphatase = liver tb, liver lymphoma (prolipherative processes)
537. Epididimitis association = hydrocele
538. Rabies prophylaxis in pat. prevoiusly vaccinated = only vaccine, no Ig
539. Hemochromatosis = liver dysfunction, arthropathy, central hypogonadism, skin pigmentation, DM; Dx = serum iron studies
540. Hormone replacement therapy S.E. = increase in triglycerides
541. Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia Rx = zidovudine
542. HAART for HIV for 6 m = decrease viral load to < 50 copies/ml is expected
543. Perimenopause = period between 2-8 y preceding menopause to 1 y after
544. Dysfunctional bleeding during perimenopause = vaginal USG or endometrium biopsy
545. Meniere disease = periodic vertigo + unilat. hearing loss + tinnitus; associated with syphillis
546. H. pilory erradication test after Rx = urea breath test or fecal Ag test after 4-12 w
547. Variceal hemorrhage re-bleeding = endoscopy + band ligation or sclerotherapy
548. Non-gonococcal urethritis Rx = azithromycin (SD) OR doxycycline; if no response = metronidazole + erythromycin OR high dose erythromycin
549. Reiter's syndr = conjunctivitis + urethritis + spondiloarthropathy
550. Patellar tendon tear = inability to mantain extension of knee; Rx = early surgical repair
551. Epistaxis Rx = topical vasoconstrictor + anesthetic + chemical or electro cauterization; if it fails = bacitracin covered ant nasal tampon
552. Central midbrain lesion = abnormal CN III function
553. Multiple myeloma Dx = serum prot. electrophoresis, bone marrow Bx (>20% plasma cells), skeletal suvey, whole body XR
554. Cleft lip surgical correction = 10 pounds, 10 weeks, 10 g of Hb
555. Marfan's syndr = corrective Sx when Ao root = 45 mm
556. Asymptomatic alfa 1 antitrypsin defic. = spirometry q3 m
557. Opioid withdrawal + HTN Rx = clonidine
558. Meningoencefalitis + pneumonia + splenomegaly = Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia (birds contact); Rx = doxycycline 100 mg q12h for 21 days
559. Lyme dis. with Bell's palsy = order CSF analysis!
560. Asymptomatic increase in TSH = order anti-TPO!
561. Any bite Rx = ampicillin-sulbactam
562. Exposure to active TB = immediate PPD, if - repeat in 3 m
563. Early stress fracture Dx = MRI, triple phase bone scans with tecnitium; Rx = rest for 4-6 w, pain control, gradual return to activity
564. Spinal epidural abscess Dx = gadoliniumenhanced MRI or CT with myelography; Rx = early surgical decompression + drainage in the first 24 h
565. Lactose intolerance = yogurt is recommended
566. Ureteral stones < 5 mm = usually pass by themselves; if not = shockwave lithotripsy
567. Ureteral stones > 8-10 mm = flexible ureteroscopy + laser lithotripsy
568. Cervical cerclage = done at 13-17 w, removed at 36 w
569. Scrotal trauma with abnormal PE = surgical exploration
570. Risk factor for prostate cancer = start screening (PSA + DRE) at 45 yo
571. Alopecia areata Rx = topical or intralesional corticosteroids
572. Hypokalemia + paralytic ileus = correct hypokalemia immediately!
573. Marfan's syndr = dural ectasia (MC), ectopia lentis, Ao dilatation, MVP
574. Pineal tu = Parinaud's syndr = loss of pupillary reaction, vertical gaze, optokinetic nystagmus, ataxia, can secrete HCG
575. MC symptom of sickle cell dis = dactylitis; second = splenic sequestration
576. Cough due to forced expiration = asthma
577. Common migraine = no aura; classic migraine = aura +
578. Chlamydia in pregnancy Rx = erythromycin
579. DM retinal, vitreous hemorrhages Rx = laser photocoagulation
580. Sydehams chorea Rx = oral penicillin 10 d, then prophylaxis
581. HAART Rx for asymptomatic HIV = CD4 <
350, viral load > 55000, check q 3 m
582. Paget's dis of the bone Rx = biphosphonates (alendronate)
583. First generation relative with colon ca = start screening at 40 yo
584. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy = NO Rx!; if high risk for preterm labor or symptomatic = oral metronidazole or clyndamycin
585. Anaphylaxis with pulm/cardiovascular symptoms = epinephrine IV
586. Hemochromatosis Rx = therapeutic phlebotomy
587. Penicillamine = promotes excretion of copper
588. Post communicating art aneurysm = CN III palsy
589. Inoperable head and neck ca = chemo + radiotherapy
590. P. carinii pneumnia Dx = fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage; Rx if mod/severe = admission + IV TMP/SMX, add corticosteroids if A-a gradient >35 or pO2 <70
591. Carbon monoxide poisoning Dx = co-oxymeter
592. Chr mesenteric ischemia Dx = mesenteric duplex USG
593. Atopic dermatitis Rx = topical steroids, tacrolimus, pimecrolimus
594. Pyloric stenosis Dx = USG; associated with erythromycin use
595. Pertussis prophylaxis = erythromycin
596. Air in the distal colon = partial (not total!) obstruction
597. Increased insulin and increased C-peptide = insulinoma, sulfonylurea use
598. Medullary thyroid ca = screen forpheochromocytoma
599. HTN in ac. ischemic stroke = treat only if syst >
220, dyast > 120
600. Rhabdomyolisis causes = cocaine, acohol, trauma, exertion. hypothermia, hypothyroidism
601. Drugs that cause pancreatitis = diuretics, valproic acid, metronidazole, tetracycline
602. Peripheral vasc dis Rx = cilostazol (platelet inhibitor and art vasodilator)
603. Rocky mountain spotted fever Rx = doxycycline
604. New onset of severe seborrheic dermatitis = order an HIV test!
605. Necrotizing fasciitis due to group A strep Rx = surgical debridement + IV clyndamycin
606. Pill-induced thyrotoxicosis = undetectable thyroglobulin
607. Graves dis. Rx = bring the patient to a normal thyroid state with beta=blockers, PTU, methimazole,
then radiodine ablation + glucocorticoids (for ophtalmopathy)
608. Thyroid storm Rx = PTU or methimazole + glucocorticoids
609. Cushing's triad (increased ICP) = bradycardia, HTN, respiratory depression
610. Postherpetic neuralgia Rx = desimipramine, amitriptyline, capsaicin, gabapentin, topical long acting oxycodone
611. Diabetic neuropathy Dx = nerve conduction studies
612. Amaurosis fugax = carotid doppler evaluation
613. TCA induced VT Rx = lidocaine
614. Watching out for scleroderma renal
involvement = monthly BP measurement
615. Constructional, dressing apraxia = nondominant
parietal lobe lesion
616. Aphasia = dominant temporal lobe lesion
617. Porphyria cutanea tarda = painless blisters + hyperthricosis + hyperpigmentation, associated with hepatitis C
618. Lyme arthritis Dx = synovial fluid ELISA or western blott; Rx = 30 d of amoxicillin or ceftriaxone or doxycycline or erythromycin; 90% of
cure in 1 y
619. Pheochromocytoma Rx = alpha blockade 10-14 d pre-op + CT/MRI
620. Neonate opiate withdrawal Rx = paregoric or tincture of opium
621. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Rx = riluzole
622. Neurogenic syncope = vasovagal, common faint
623. Autonomic neuropathy = leads to postural hypotension
624. Restless legs syndr Rx = pramipexole, ropinirole (dopamine agonists)
625. Pick's dis = slowly progressive frontal and/or temporal lobe dementia = not only cognitive, but behavioral changes
626. Varicocele complication = testicular atrophy
627. Obesity surgery indication = BMI > 40 kg/m2
628. Ao stenosis association = angiodysplasia in colon
629. CO poisoning = several people in the same household with throbbing headache, nausea, malaise, dizziness
630. Ovaries = 2-3 cm in young women, non palpable after menopause
631. Venous sinus thrombosis Rx = heparin, even with hemorrhagic infarction
632. Ac. variceal bleeding = give fluoroquine 7-10 d for infection prophylaxis, it improves the outcome
633. Infant botulism symptoms = decreased gag reflex, constipation, lethargy, poor sucking
634. Ac. gout Dx = arthrocentesis; Rx = ibuprofen, indomethacin, colchicine, glucocorticoids
635. Giardia = no eosinophilia
636. Down syndr screening = AFP, HCG, unconjugated estriol, dimeric inhibin-A
637. Severe pneumonia Rx = hospitalization + ceftriaxone + azithromycin
638. Delayed puberty = no increase in testicle size by 14 yo, diameter < 2.5 cm; Dx = bone age determination (XR)
639. HTN + scleroderma renal crisis Rx = ACEi
640. Scombroid = fish bad conservation; 10-30 minutes after ingestion, patient has histamine realted symptoms; self-limited
641. Ac. dystonic reaction (e.g. metoclopramide) Rx = IV diphenhidramine
642. Urine toxicology = urine immunoassay screen (results in 1 hour)
643. Achalasia = dysphagia for both solids and liquids
644. Fasting blood glucose 100-126 = increased risk for CAD; metformin may be given, specially if metabolic syndr present
645. Sjogren's syndr Dx = minor salivary glan Bx is gold standard
646. Celiac dis. Dx = anti-endomisial, anti-tissue transglutaminase Ab levels
647. SAH = xantochromia in CSF is found only after 4 h of symptoms
648. COPD prognosis = FEV1
649. Cosyntropin stimulation test indication = adrenal failure
650. RA = clinical Dx; if RF - order anti-CCP Ab; if erosive joint dis = treat with methotrexate and other DMARDs
651. Mother with DM type I = 3% risk, father = 6% risk the child will have it too
652. Transverse myelitis = rapidly progressive weakness post URI + sensory loss + urinary retention
653. Nonbacterial prostatitis Rx = sitz baths + NSAIDs
654. Mesenteric ischemia = metabolic acidosis
655. HIV teratogenic drugs = efavirenz, delavirdine
656. Dextrose + insulin = decrease tryglycerides
657. Extrapyramidal symptoms + dementia = subcortical dementia
658. Carpal tunnel syndr initial Rx = continuous wrist splint
659. Cutaneous cryptococcosis suspicion = bx of skin lesions
670. Trichomoniasis in breastfeeding mother = no breastfeeding for 24 h after SD of metronidazole, discard pumped milk
671. Erysipela = group A strep
672. Papillary thyrois ca Rx = near total thyroidectomy; no need to stage before it
673. Onychomicosis Rx = oral terbinafine or itraconazole
674. Disseminated gonococcal infection Dx = cultures = joint fluid, mucosal surfaces
675. Lead blood level > 44 = chelation therapy; intoxication = > 10
676. Vit B12 replacement = check K closely for 48 h (it may decrease quickly)
677. Dumping syndr Rx = high prot, low carbohydrate diet
678. Initial screening for infertility = semen analysis
679. Excess iodine contrast S.E. = thyrotoxicosis
680. CD4 < 200 = TMP/SMX (P. carinii)
681. CD4 <50 = azithromycin or chlarithromycin (MAC)
682. INR > 20 = FFP, IV vit K; between 5 and 20 = oral vit K; <5 = hold coumadin until desired level
683. Ac. retroviral syndr = thrombocytopenia, leukopenia
684. Lactose intolerance Dx = lactose breath hydrogen test
685. Drugs that have anemia as S.E. = phenytoin, methotrexate, trimethoprim; Rx = folinic ac (leucovorin)
686. Rosacea Rx = topical metronidazole; remember this disease may have ocular symptoms, and can't be treated as acne
687. Carbamazepine S.E. : neutropenia, SIADH, glaucoma, constipation
688. Eryhtema chr. migrans + tick bite = treat it with doxycycline right away (28 d), don't wait for serology
689. Gonorrhea Rx in cephalosporin allergy = ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin (+azithromycin)
690. BPPV Rx = canalith repositioning procedure
691. HIV lipodystrophy = HAART S.E., increase tryglycerides; Rx = gemfibrozil
692. Pernicious anemia Dx = anti-intrinsic factor Ab testing (not Schilling test!)
693. Psoriatic arthritis, nail dis Rx = methotrexate
694. Chr. liver dis = give hepatitis A vaccine
695. Bacterial conjunctivitis Rx = erythromycin ointment, sulfa drops
696. Bile-salt induced diarrhea = post cholecystectomy, short bowel syndr; Rx = cholestyramine
697. Disease transmitted only by mothers in a family = mitochondrial heritance
698. Adult Still's dis = RA variant; fever + salmoncolored maculopapular rash; Rx = NSAIDs; monitor liver function!
699. Amiodarone in anticoagulated patients = doctor should decrease the warfarin dose in 25%
700. Back pain for more than 6 w = order ESR; if > 20, order imaging studies
701. Tinea versicolor Rx = topical terbinafine
702. Bacterial overgrowth Dx = quantitative jejunal cultures
703. Ultrarapid acting insulin = lispro, aspart
704. Hydrocortisone = low-potency steroid
705. Betamethasone = high-potency steroid
706. Barret's esophagus without dyspalsia = endoscopy + Bx q 1-3 y
707. Premenstrual syndr Rx = SSRIs; no improvement = alprazolam
708. Retrosternal goiter with compressive symptoms = surgery
709. Drugs that decrease sexual drive = bupropion, mirtazapine
710. Valproic acid S.E. = urinary frequency and incontinence
711. Renal art. stenosis Dx = MR angiography
712. Primary pulm. HTN Rx = anticoagulation (INR = 2) + oral vasodilator
713. CoAo Dx = MRI of chest
714. Undescended tests = wait until 6 mo
715. Initial smoking cessation aid = high dose nicotine patch (but patient needs to be commited, because smoking using the patch may lead to coronary spasm and even MI!); bupropion later
716. Initial sleep apnea investigation = medical workup (investigate hypothyroidism too)
717. Rare event study = meta-analysis (increase sample size, therefore increase power); limitation = heterogeneous studies put together
718. Mass in the hepatic duct Rx = ERCP + stent placement; if it fails = percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography + stent
719. Borderline personality = splitting, e.g. primitive idealization; Rx = dialectical behavour therapy
720. Falling on an outstretched hand = scaphoid fracture; Dx = CT scan of the hand, bone scan; complication = nonunion
721. Epidural spinal cord compression (metastasis) = thoracic radicular pain, neuro symptoms; Rx = high dose corticosteroids, MRI, radiation
722. Hemochromatosis Rx = phlebotomy
723. Penicillamine = promotes copper excretion (Wilson's dis)
724. Extremely ominous sign of preeclampsia/eclampsia = retinal hemorrhages
725. Ac. adrenal insuf. Rx = dexamethasone + cosyntropin stimulation test
726. Symptomatic rectocele Rx = surgery or pessary + estrogen cream
727. HIV and RPR + = CSF examination; if nl = benzathine penicillin weekly x 3, warn about possible Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
728. Painless low GI bleeding = colonoscopy or radionuclide scan with technitium-99
729. IgM HIV Ab assay = low sensitivity, do NOT use!
730. Indeterminate HIV ELISA = order HIV RNA PCR assay or p24 Ag
731. HIV with or without Rx = monitor CD4 count and HIV load q 3-4 m
732. Survival analysis = accounts for number of events AND timing of events
733. Blepharospasm = focal dystonia; Rx = botulin toxin injection
724. Prerenal azotemia = decrease fractional excretion of sodium
725. Drug-induced allergic interstitial nephritis = happens after 3-5 d of causal agent; eosinophils in urine
726. Most benefitial step to decrease osteoporosis risk = quit smoking
727. Ankylosing spodilitis suspition = X-ray sacroiliac joint, repeat q 3 m + ESR
728. Chr. Foley catheter + candida on urine culture = no Rx if asymptomatic
729. Viral meningitis in chidren = enterovirus, arbovirus; in adults = HSV
730. Drugs with thrombocytopenia as S.E. = clopidogrel, heparin
731. Ideal blood culture = 1 h before fever
732. Chr. non-remiting cluster headache Rx = verapimil, lithium; ac. crisis = 100% oxygen inhalation
733. Condyloma acuminata in pregnancy = do NOT use podophilin, use trichloroacetic acid instead
734. Chr. hepatitis C Rx = interferon alpha-2b (+/-ribavirin)
735. Hormone replacement therapy cessation = do not do it abruptly, taper it down instead!
736. Confidence interval includes 1.0 = not sattistically significant
737. Latent TB infection = PPD + and CXR WNL; Rx = isoniazid + B6 for 6-12 m
738. ARDS causes = sepsis, pneumonia, severe trauma, burns, drowning, pancreatitis; clear lungs on PE + diffuse, bilat infiltrates on CXR; Rx = PEEP
around 9 cmH2O, high O2 concentration, low tidal volume (6 ml/kg)
739. Emergency contraception after 120 h = copper IUD
740. DM + C-section prep = normal insulin the night before; insulin drip + D5 1/2 NS + KCl during the day, keep glucose <160
741. Single most important predictor for CV risk = DM
742. Diet for diarrhea = normal, age appropriate with low fat and low sugar
743. Sedative and hypnotic drugs for the elderly = increased risk for falls, so risk x benefits have to be carefully evaluated
744. BZD withdrawal = tremolousness, seizure, psychosis, increased HR, BP, body temperature, anxiety, restlessness, confusion, disorientation; Rx =
IV lorazepam, diazepam
745. Anemia of chr. dis. = RA, SLE, vasculitis; if severe, with normal erythropoietin levels = red cell transfusion
746. Sjogren's syndr Dx = anti-Ro, anti-L2 in salivary gland; gold standard = labial minor salivary gland Bx = focal collections of lymphocytes; associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-cell lymphoma)
747. MEN 1 = hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic tu, pituitary tu
748. MEN 2A = medullary thyroid ca, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism
749. MEN 2B = medullary thyroid ca, pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas, marfanoid habitus
750. Vertebrae osteomyelitis and diabetic foot = most accurate test = MRI; gold standadrd = bone Bx; culture = deep curetage tissue
751. Addison's dis = decreased Na, increased K, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis; Dx = ACTH stimulation test, early mornong cortisol
752. IV pentamidine S.E. = increased or decreased K, decreased Ca, hyper or hypoglycemia
753. Obesity surgery indications = BMI > 40, coexisting diseases, decreased quality of life
754. Erb's palsy prognosis = 80% chance near full recovery in 1 y
755. NF 1 = cafe-au-lait spots, cutaneous neurofibromas, axillary freckling, unilat. acoustic neuroma
756. NF 2 = hypopigmented spots, family history of bilat. deafness (bilat. acoustic neuromas)
757. Tuberous sclerosis = congenital ash-leaf spots, glial prolipheration, organ hamartomas/cysts
758. Sturge-Weber syndr = facial port-wine stain, leptomeningeal angiomatosis
759. Osler-Rendu-Weber syndr = vascular lesions of the CNS, multiple telangiectasias
760. Diaper rash Rx = topical zinc oxyde paste, petrolatun, keep area dry; if it fails = low-potency corticosteroids ointment, but keep an eye open for
fungal infections!
761. Situations with increased amylase = pancreatitis, ac. parotiditis, intestinal dis., renal failure, cholecystitis, fallopian tube dis.
762. Mild ac. pancreatitis Rx = IV fluids + pain control + NPO + NG tube aspiration; atbtcs if severe necrotizing pancreatitis, fever, evidence of infection
(imipenem, third gen. cephalosporin, piperacillin, fluoroquinolone, metronidazole); if it fails = CTguided aspiration of tissue, culture and sensitivity
763. Infant, children with TB meningitis Rx = 12 m of anti-TB drugs + corticosteroids; if resistant = 18-24 m
764. LDL goal is < 100 in = coronary dis. peripheral and cerebral vascular dis., DM
765. Hypophosphatemia = respiratory weakness, hemolysis, decreased release of O2 from Hb
766. Postpartum endometritis + breastfeeding Rx = clindamycin + gentamycin; main risk factor = Csection
767. Sarcoidosis = hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum ACE, hypergammaglobulinemia
768. Herpes gestationis = paules, plaques, vesicles around umbilicus; Rx = topical steroids, oral antihistamins (it has nothing to do with the virus)
769. Inflammatory myositis Rx = high-dose glucocorticoids (prednisone 1 mg/kg), immunosuppressants
770. Depot medroxyprogesterone indicated as contraceptive = menorrhagia, PID, fibrosis, heavy smoking; decrease the incidence of endometrial ca
771. Shuffling gait = decreased speed and amplitude of leg movements; Parkinson's
772. Spastic paraparesis = patient drags legs forward, no bending of the knees
773. Cerebellar ataxia = "drunken sailor", zigzag, jergy gait
774. Senile gait = "walking on ice"
775. Neonatal polycythemia = Htc > 65%, apnea, hypoglycemia, increased bilirubin, cardiac and respiratory compromise; Rx = adequate hydration +
partial exchange transfusion
776. C. botulinum soil spores = California, Pennsylvania, Utah
777. Neuropathic ca pain Rx = sharp = carbamazepine; dull = desipramine
778. Organophosphate poisoning Rx = atropine + pralidoxime
779. Meralgia paresthetica = entrapment of lat. femoral cutaneous nerve
780. Higher specificity = higher PPV; higher sensitivity = higher NPV
781. Emphysematous pyelonephritis (DM) Rx = IV atbtcs + immediate nephrectomy
782. Pregnancy + epilepsy with no seizures for 2-5 y = try to taper down and withdrawal the drug
783. No adequate response to osteoporosis Rx = investigate multiple myeloma!
784. Pseudomembranous colitis = repeat immunoassay if - but strong suspition, repeat Rx with metronidazole if no response on first try
785. Diabetic mononeuropathy prognosis = very good, improvement in a few weeks
786. Metoclopramide = many S.E., tachyphylaxis
787. Single small pedunculated polyp = colonoscopy q 3 y
788. Seizures post stroke Rx = phenytoin, carbamazepine
789. Glucocorticoids for < 3 weeks = no need to taper it down
790. Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis = renal failure, ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, metformin, intoxications = aspirin, ethylene glycol, methanol
791. CCS - Rupture of AAA case = order monitors, oxygen, IV access BEFORE PE
792. CCS - DKA = order calcium, phosphate, amylase, lipase, serum osmolality, ketones
793. CCS - COPD with pneumonia = monitor peak flow and FEV1
794. CCS - Anaphylaxis case = give epinephrine BEFORE PE
795. CCS - Paracentesis needed = order analysis of the fluid = ceel count, diff., prot, glucose, cytology; depending on the case = Gran stain, culture, AFB
staining, amylase, bilirubin
796. CCS - Domestic abuse = urine toxicology, skeletal survey, support group, social worker
797. CCS - SLE = ESR, serum ANA, UA, CXR, total complement, anti-ds DNA, DEXA, prednisone, NSAIDs, rheumato consult, nephro consult,
sunblock use
798. CCS - Croup = cool mist tent, decadron, racemic epinephrine, observe for 4 h
799. CCS - Turner's syndr = GH, oxandrolone, estrogen + progestin, vit. D
800. CCS - When ordering corticosteroids in high doses or prolonged use intended = H2 blockers, vit. D, calcium, DEXA scan, exercise, sometimes even
viphosphonate
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  #2  
Old 02-17-2010
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Default thank you

Woow
that's great man
I've been looking for Arlete's Notes long time ago and I did not find it in PDF
YOU ARE A STAR
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Old 02-17-2010
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You are wellcome, I pasted it in the thread but I am not the one who added the PDF ;-) ! Maybe one of the admins did it. Goodluck.
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Old 08-12-2011
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ApplicantGuide View Post
You are wellcome, I pasted it in the thread but I am not the one who added the PDF ;-) ! Maybe one of the admins did it. Goodluck.
Thanks a bunch ApplicantGuide !!!
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Old 08-20-2011
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Default Thanks a lot but..

.. who's Arlete? what's the source of these notes?, and are they worth our time?
__________________
I've regained my honor [99/99].
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Old 08-20-2011
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Hi. I am Arlete. I am an IMG. I was writing these notes while studying for step 3, so the sources are many, even from some CME classes I was attending at the time. They helped me to get a 99 score. I think they are worthy for a last reading, after you're done studying and answering questions. Good luck!
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Old 04-12-2012
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Default WOW!

It is great and very useful! Many thanks
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Old 01-18-2013
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Thanks for this great effort.
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