So how does hitting a patella tendon stimulates the muscle spindle activated by increase in muscle stretch?
I mean just hitting the patella tendon with a reflex hammer, I don't think will result in the muscle stretch, right? What am I missing here?
In goljan pathology he says that fibrinous pericarditis manifests with precordial chest pain which disappears when leaning forward and appears back when leaning back. can someone explain this why this happens?:)
Thanks in advance
I was wondering would an aortic stenosis cause a loud S2 or a soft S2?
The whole time I thought it was a loud S2 until I got a question on USMLE Stat in which they mention its a soft S2 with aortic stenosis. :confused:
"during inspiration the jugular venous pressure and level of distension normally decreases"
itz written in UW.
i want to know how it decresses because during inspiration venous blood to right side increases so it should increase JVP.
If a question gives you information about the heart and you must give a diagnosis between pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, which one to choose? And why?
Also does pulsus paradoxus occur with pericarditis or with cardiac tamponade?
lucid interval is seen in subdural or epidural hematoma?
acc to mtb 2 it can occur in both subdural or epidural
but from first aid step 1...it said lucid interval occurred only with epidural hematoma!!
I understand the timing of mid systolic click and the effect of increase/decrease preload on it, but what I dont understand is the effect of preload changes on mitral valve prolapse INTENSITY of murmur
why does an increase in perload cause an increase in mitral valve prolapse as written...
Thought of making this thread to get away from all the stress associated with the USMLE exams. I feel just preparing for these exams has taught me a lot, and I'd rather not forget some of the really awesome stuff I've learned...so why not make some sort of compendium of all the interesting...
There are many types of gaits, they can be buzzwords pointing to specific conditions in your CK exam:
1) hypokinetic gait/shuffling gait/festinating gait-----Parkinson
2) spastic gait------UMN lesion
3) antalgic gait------tarsal tunnel syndrome or any joint pain
4) en bloc...
when you have s3 heart sound so that always mean you will have an s4 heart sound ....?
S3 --- occurs due to volume overload in the ventricles
S4----occurs due to decreased compliance ---> concentric hypertrophy and volume overload are responsible for it
But you can have an independent s4...
guys...please could you explain me.....why there is differences in y descent in pericardial tamponade and constrictive pericarditis..?
absent y descent in cardiac tamponade....(due to elevated rt.atrial pressure that masks it..?)
prominent y descent in constrictive pericarditis(square root...
blood pressure changes in upper extremities....
1) aortic dissection--(right arm low BP than left)
2) subclavian steal syndrome ---( left arm low BP than right)
3) accelerated atherosclerosis (same as aortic dissection)
are there any more......? if +nt pls share with me..