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1- Detection bias is just like measurement bias in which your focus erronously points to a statistical difference while in fact it should not. Ascertainment bias is the specific detection bias of having the experimenter giving undue efforts to find an effects that he expects to happen.

2- Longitudinal studies follow a group of people who have certain risk or disease and see what happens with them over time. while prospective studies applies an intervention such as adding a risk or treatment and then see what happens over time.
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