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· Ex-USMLE Forums Staff
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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
USMLE typically presents case scenarios in which the patient has notably an enlarged tongue also called Macroglossia.

Memorizing the causes will help us find the diagnosis by correlating with the other features presented in the case.

Causes of Enlarged Tongue:

Congenital hypothyroidism (Cretinism): also look for mental retardation, dwarfism, pott belly, ....etc
Down syndrome: importantly to note that it's the small oral cavity that results in the protruding tongue not a real big tongue.
Amyloidosis: It's wise to remember that's the tongue is a good site for biopsy when diagnosing amyloidosis.
Acromegaly: As all other organs get enlarged by the excessive growth hormone.
Hurler syndrome: Also notably the course facial features.
Beckwith Wiedamann Syndrome: Also hemihypertrophy, macrosomia and insulinoma.

Of note, three of these conditions are also associated with peri-umbilical hernia (Down, Cretinism, and BWS)!
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