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This is a high yield topic that is frequently asked about in USMLE Step 1. The following table list all these muscles each with its action.

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All of these muscles are innervated by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve except the buccinator and orbicularis oris which are supplied by the facial and the geniohyoid which is supplied by the hypoglossal nerve.

Side to side action is effected when both the medial and lateral pterygoids contract and also some protrusion may be affected on the opposite side when the medial and lateral pterygoid contract unilaterally.
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