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B is really bad!

The risk of contracting HIV from a stick with a needle, contaminated with HIV infected blood, is 3 out of a thousand (0.3%). The risk is much lower for accidental body fluid contact with broken skin. There is virtually no risk in touching an HIV infected patient, unless there is contact with blood or body fluid. The risk goes up, if the injury is deep, the needle was in patient's artery, vein, or had visible blood on it, or if the patient has a high viral load.

To put the risk of transmission of HIV by needle stick (0.3%) into perspective, the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus after a needle stick from a patient who is Hepatitis Be antigen positive is about 30 %, and that for Hepatitis C virus is about 3%.

Every medical student, doctor and health care worker must know these.
 

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B. CMV - Its the commonest infection risk transmitted by blood - also the commonest infection worldwide and almost everyone has antibodies to it. :)
Almost everybody has antibodies against CMV, so they are immune and they can not transmit disease. CMV is present in milk, saliva, urine, and tears. transmission mostly occurs with prolonged exposure, such as between children in households, or day care centers. Also sexual transmission. Anyway, blood is not the most common route.
 
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