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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
6- match the clinical description with the most likely organism:

a- Strep. Pneumoniae
b- Staph. Aureus
c- Strep. Viridans
d- Providentia stuartii
e- Actinomyces israelii
f- Hemophilus ducreyi
g- Neisseria meningitides
h- Listeria monocytogene

1- 30 y/o female with MVP, MR develops fever, anorexia & weight loss after a dental procedure

2- 80 y/o male hospitalized for hip Fx, has foley cath. in place, develops shaking chills, fever & hypotension.

3- young man develops painless, fluctuant, purplish lesion over mandible, after several weeks cutaneous fistula is noted.

4- sickle cell patient presents with high fever, toxicity signs of pneumonia & stiff neck.

1- c, 2- d, 3- e, 4-a

7- 65 y/o male with Hx of DM & cardiomyopathy, presents with severe knee pain. On P/E, knee is swollen, red & tender. Knee X-Ray shows linear clcification.
*** Dx is best made by:
A- Serum uric acid
B- Serum calcium
C- Arthrocentesis & identification of birefringent rhomboid crystals
D- Rheumatoid factor

*** Further workup inthis patient should include evaluation for:
A- Renal dis.
B- Hemochromatosis
D- Lyme dis.

Answers are C & B. Acute monoarticular arthritis in association with linear calcification in the cartilage of knee maqkes the Dx of pseudogout which is positive for birefringent crystals in joint fluid. Pseudogout maybe associated with hemochromatosis.

8- 65 y/o woman with a 12 Hx of symmetric polyarthritis, presents with splenomegaly, ulcers on lat. Malleoli, synovitis of wrists, shoulders and knees, and no hepatomegaly.
Lab results : WBC=2500, RF= 1:4096, this patients WBC diff is most likely to show what ?
A- pancytopenia
B- lymphopenia
C- granulocytopenia
D- lymphocytosis
E- basophilia

Answer is C. case of felty's syn. ( RA+ splenomegaly+ leukopenia ), the mech. Of granulocytopenia is poorly understood.

9- A patient with low grade fever & weight loss has poor excursion on the Rt. side of chest with decreased fremitus, flatness to percussion and decreased breath sounds. Trachea is deviated to the Lt. What's the most likely Dx?
A- Pneumothorax
B- Pleural effusion secondary to histoplasmosis
C- Consolidated pneumonia
D- Atelectasis

Answer is B. Physical findings all consistent with pleural effusion, which in large amount can shift trachea to the Lt. in pneumothorax hyperresonance of the affected side is present. Atelectasis on the Rt would shift trachea to the Rt.

10- A patient have an unexpected high value for diffusing capacity, this finding is most consistent with which of the ffg?
A- Anemia
B- Cystic fibrosis
C- Emphysema
D- Intrapulmonary hemorrhage

Answer is D. Decreased diffusing capacity is seen in: primary parenchymal disorder, anemia & removal of lung tissue.
Increased value is seen in : polycythemia, CHF & intrapulmonary hemorrhage.

11- A 65 y/o man is admitted to the hospital with anginal chest pain. His general health has been excellent, although he has had a multinodular goiter for many years. He had a series of thyroid function tests 4 weeks before admission, and the results are :
Serum T4 8.0 µg/dL
Free T4 index 8.0
Serum T3 152 ng/dL
Serum thyrotropin (TSH) 0.7 µU/mL

A MI is ruled out, but chest pain continues. A coronary arteriogram shows a 90% stenosis of the left main coronary artery. A coronary artery bypass graft is done. The patient has an uneventful postoperative course and is discharged on the seventh postoperative day. One month later, he is readmitted in atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. Repeat thyroid function testing shows the following:
Serum T4 15.0 µg/dL
Free T4 index 15.8
Serum T3 220 ng/dL
Serum TSH <0.01 mU/µL

What is the most likely Dx?
A. Graves' disease
B. Stress-induced hyperthyroidism
C. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism
D. Silent thyroiditis
Answer is C. The natural history of multinodular goiters is slow growth and gradual decrease in thyrotropin (TSH), reflecting increasing thyroid hormone production. This progression occurs over years to decades, however. Many patients with multinodular goiters have autonomous areas within their thyroid. This patient had normal thyroid function 1 month before admission. However, his serum TSH level was near the lower limits of normal, suggesting the possibility of autonomous thyroid function.
When patients with multinodular goiters are exposed to excess iodine, severe hyperthyroidism may occur. This is known as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. When iodine supplementation is introduced into areas of iodine deficiency, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism may occur in patients with multinodular goiters. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism may occur in nonendemic goiter areas as well, often with devastating consequences.
The high iodine content of the dye used for the cardiac catheterization undoubtedly precipitated the hyperthyroidism in this patient. The onset of hyperthyroidism may be delayed for several weeks to months after the iodide exposure.
Although other causes of hyperthyroidism are possible, none is as likely as this scenario. When patients with multinodular goiter must be exposed to excess iodine (for example, during cardiac catheterization, computed tomographic [CT] scan with contrast medium, or amiodarone therapy), premedication with antithyroid drugs (methimazole or propylthiouracil) should be considered.

12- A 43 y/o woman complains of itching that keeps her awake at night. Physical examination is normal, except for the liver, which is felt 7 cm below the right costal margin.The blood count is normal; the results of serum chemistry tests are as follows:
• Creatinine 0.8 mg/dL
• Bilirubin 0.6 mg/dL
• Alanine aminotransferase 78 U/L
• Albumin 4.2 g/dL
• Alkaline phosphatase 450 U/L
Which test would you order next in order to diagnose the underlying disorder?
(A) Serum protein electrophoresis
(B) Anti¬smooth-muscle antibody
(C) Antimitochondrial antibody
(D) Technetium-99m liver-spleen scan

Answer is C. This is the classic description of primary biliary cirrhosis. Itching is the most common specific symptom of early primary biliary cirrhosis. Approximately 70% of affected patients have enlarged livers. The best screening test for suspected primary biliary cirrhosis is the antimitochondrial antibody test. It is positive in 95% of affected patients and has a 98% specificity if newer enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests are used. Serum protein electrophoresis might show a diffuse increase in immunoglobulins. However, this finding is nonspecific and may be found in many chronic liver diseases. Anti¬smooth-muscle antibody tests are positive in some patients with autoimmune chronic hepatitis. However, the test is nonspecific and not terribly useful. The sulfur colloid technetium liver-spleen scan is useful for detecting portal hypertension and hypersplenism. However, it is not specific and would not be helpful in diagnosing primary biliary cirrhosis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is typically normal in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Its only role in the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis is in the patient who presents with a similar syndrome but who has a negative antimitochondrial antibody test. ERCP would then be performed to look for other causes of disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis.

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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
3- A patient presents to your office with complaints of severe earache and decreased hearing on the left side. Examination confirms left otitis media. You prescribe an oral cephalosporin and an analgesic. The next day the patient is brought to the emergency room with a rash and moderate bronchospasm. Reviewing his office record you are horrified to discover that he is known to have a severe allergic reaction to penicillin.
What should you tell the patient at this point?
(A) Apologize and explain what happened.
(B) Apologize and offer to compensate him financially.
(C) Attribute the rash and the bronchospasm to his infection.
(D) Explain to the patient that he is allergic to cephalosporin as well as penicillin.
(E) No explanations are necessary.
Answer is A. Medical errors are common but are infrequently reported to patients. The fear is that acknowledging a mistake may lead to litigation. Nevertheless, there is no excuse for a physician not to admit a mistake, which is an inevitable part of medical practice. Apologizing and explaining is not only ethical, but also has been shown to decrease the risk of litigation. There is no need or obligation to offer financial compensation. Trying to attribute your mistake to other causes, or attempting to blame the patient for your negligence is not only unethical, but will increase your risk of litigation. Finally, nothing will anger a patient more than no explanation at all.

14- A 29 y/o woman presents with an exacerbation of her asthma. She is 11 weeks pregnant. She has mild intermittent asthma and usually takes a ß-agonist as needed. She has one 4-year-old child who is in day care and has had a recent upper respiratory tract infection. She has a dry cough, clear nasal discharge, myalgias, and fatigue.
On physical examination, she is talking in full sentences and has normal tympanic membranes, mildly erythematous oropharynx without exudates, no adenopathy; she has positive wheezing bilaterally. The peak flow is 300 mL; her usual result is 390 mL. Pulse oximetry is 93% on room air.Which of the following is indicated in the management of this patient?
(A) Amoxicillin
(B) Theophylline
(C) Prednisone
(D) Montelukast
(E) Flunisolide
Answer is E. Treatment principles for asthma in the nonpregnant patient apply also to the pregnant patient. She has mild intermittent asthma with an exacerbation, for which therapy with an inhaled glucocorticoid is an appropriate choice. Use of inhaled glucocorticoids is safe in pregnancy.
Asthma in pregnancy has a variable course, with one third of patients getting better, one third getting worse, and one third staying the same. This patient has had mild symptoms and now has an exacerbation related either to an upper respiratory tract infection, or to worsening of her asthma because of her pregnancy. She has no signs of streptococcal pharyngitis, sinusitis, bacterial tracheobronchitis, or pneumonia; antibiotics should therefore not be given. Prednisone therapy should be reserved for further symptoms. Theophylline can be used in pregnancy with close monitoring, but it is not the next drug of choice. Montelukast may be used in pregnancy, but should be reserved for progressive symptoms.
The patient should continue therapy with ß-agonists. Use of a peak flow meter at home is integral to her management; she should be instructed and encouraged in its use.

15- A 30-year-old woman presents because of 6 months of amenorrhea. She had regular menses starting at age 13 years and is otherwise healthy. Menses gradually became irregular over the past 5 years, in spite of relatively stable weight and activity. She has no acne or hirsutism. The results of recent laboratory tests included normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels and a negative serum pregnancy test.
What is the next most useful diagnostic test for the evaluation of secondary amenorrhea in this patient?
(A) Measurement of LH
(B) Measurement of FSH
(C) Pelvic US
(D) Measurement of serum estradiol
(E) MRI of the pituitary gland
Answer is B. In this patient, the negative pregnancy test, and normal serum TSH and prolactin levels exclude the most common causes of secondary amenorrhea. The remaining causes include hypothalamic amenorrhea and ovarian failure. Of the tests listed, serum FSH is the most likely to be diagnostic of a reproductive endocrine abnormality, as it has a longer half life than luteinizing hormone and becomes elevated relatively early in the process of ovarian aging. Luteinizing hormone is less useful because of its greater variability across the normal menstrual cycle (including the dramatic, often 10-fold, increase at the mid-cycle surge), its more striking 1 to 2 hourly pulsatility, and its elevation in polycystic ovary syndrome as well as ovarian failure. Serum estradiol is frequently in the normal range in various reproductive disorders and therefore rarely useful. MRI of the pituitary gland is not indicated unless other tests are normal and a hypothalamic cause of amenorrhea needs to be ruled out. Finally, pelvic ultrasound can show the presence of ovaries, their size, and the uterine morphology and endometrial thickness, but cannot diagnose the cause of secondary amenorrhea. It may be more useful in the evaluation of primary amenorrhea, if the physical examination is inadequate to confirm the presence of intact ovaries and a uterus, or in the evaluation of excessive menstrual bleeding, when it can identify endometrial thickening, polyps, and/or uterine leiomyomas. A medroxyprogesterone challenge test can show that the uterine anatomy and vaginal outflow track are normal, which is suggested by the history of previously normal menstrual cycles. In addition, the challenge test provides some information about recent estrogen exposure. However, it cannot be diagnostic in estrogen deficiency.

16- A 2 y/o has a chronic cough. CXR reveals hyperinflation of the left hemithorax. Bilateral decubitus views showed that the right lung becomes appropriately atelectatic however, the left side shows no change in appearance with decubitus positioning. What’s the most likely diagnosis?

Asymmetric hyperinflation suggests the possibility of an aspirated foreign body in this two year old infant. These findings suggest the diagnosis of an aspirated foreign body or a possible obstruction of the left main stem bronchus from a central etiology. Bronchoscopy is both diagnostic and therapeutic.

17- match this drugs with their associated syndrome:
A- barbiturates
B- Ecstasy
C- Inhalants
D- Marijuana
E- Methamphetamine

1- Severe encephalopathy
2- Lung cancer
3- Rhabdomyolysis during intoxication
4- Wanting to touch/be touched during intoxication
5- Seizures during withdrawal
6- “ Swiss cheese “ appearance on functional brain imaging
A-5, B-4, C-1, D- 2, E-6, F-3

18- 72 y/o man with Hx of UTI & CHF is admitted for sepsis & pulmonary edema. He’s treated with clindamycin, tobramycin & IV furosemide. After 4 days, sepsis signs are improves but BUN= 60 & Cr.= 5 mg/dl. BP=125/75 , PR=72( no postural changes ).
1-What’s the most likely cause of his renal dysfunction?
A- Prerenal azotemia
C- Interstitial nephritis
D- Hypercalcemic nephropathy

2- What’s the best way to confirm the Dx?
A- Urine Na of 25 mEq/L
B- Renal tubular epithelial cells & muddy brown casts in sediment
C- Negative US
D- Abnormalities of medulla in IVP

Aswers are B & B. There’s no clinical evidence of prerenal azotemia, so the most likely Dx is ATN due to toxicity with aminoglycoside. Urine sediment in ATN is abnormal and shows renal tubular epithelial cells, debris & muddy brown casts. Since patient has been getting diuretics, high urine Na is less specific.

19- 70 y/o man with Hx of COPD, presents with worsening SOB of the last couple days. He’s coughing yellow-colored sputum and gets no result from his beta 2 agonist & ipratropium aerosolized pumps. On P/E, RR=40, HR=110, BP= 155/85, he’s afebrile and using his accessory muscles for respiration. Also inspiratory & expiratory diffuse wheezing on both sides of his lungs are heard. What’s the most likely Dx?
A- Acute exacerbation of COPD
B- Alfa-1 antitrypsin def.
C- Chronic bronchitis
D- Exacerbation of asthma
E- Pneumonia
Answer is A- Acute exacerbation of COPD, it occurs when patient develops acute onset of marked dyspnea & tachypnea with use of accessory mucles with no response to medication.
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