One of the strategies that can help you answer more efficiently is to read carefully
You may think that this is an obvious fact and does not need alertness from your side but in fact it is amazing how many questions you'll start to get correct once you practice careful reading.
A flow volume curve is presented, you think of it and you intelligently came to conclusion that this is an obstructive pulmonary disease then you proceed to the options which are:
-Interalveolar wall destruction
If you read quickly you will likely dismiss the second option as you may read it Intra alveolar not Inter alveolar and so you missed the chance to deduce emphysema from that option. And you may end up choosing the wrong distractor (atelectasis) overlooking the most obvious answer.
So double check your reading ability, for me it was a problem and I missed so many questions until I learned how to read carefully. When I rectified my reading behavior I started utilizing all the one hour time of the block while before that I was finishing 10 to 15 minutes shorter.
In the same context, do not hurry up when the question seems so straight forward it might be sometimes that you are missing like some hidden words or dazzling distractors are there.
Blood samples were taken from patients that were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Then they were tested for HIV status.
What type of study?
It's likely that the buzzword longitudinal makes you think that this is for sure a prospective study but in fact they just took blood samples from those enrolled and there's a new study now on these blood samples which is cross sectional!