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2. A 10-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department because of diffuse, aching abdominal pain, nausea, and recurrent vomiting over the past 5 hours. She has an 8-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with 20 U of NPH and 6 U of regular insulin in the morning and 14 U of NPH and 5 U of regular insulin in the evening. She appears lethargic but is easily arousable. There is an obvious odor of ketones on her breath. Her blood pressure is 100/70 mm Hg, pulse is 95/min, and respirations are 20/min and deep. Serum studies show:

Na+ 142 mEq/L
K+ 5.3 mEq/L
HCO3– 6 mEq/L
Glucose 710 mg/dL

Which of the following laboratory findings is most likely to be increased?

A ) Arterial pH

B ) Serum C-peptide level

C ) Serum magnesium level

D ) Serum osmolality

E ) Serum phosphorus level
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